295 research outputs found

    Proximity-Coupled Ti/TiN Multilayers for use in Kinetic Inductance Detectors

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    We apply the superconducting proximity effect in TiN/Ti multi-layer films to tune the critical temperature, Tc, to within 10 mK with high uniformity (less than 15 mK spread) across a 75 mm wafer. Reproducible Tc's are obtained from 0.8 - 2.5 K. These films had high resistivities, > 100 uOhm-cm and internal quality factors for resonators in the GHz range on the order of 100k and higher. Both trilayers of TiN/Ti/TiN and thicker superlattice films were prepared, demonstrating a highly controlled process for films over a wide thickness range. Detectors were fabricated and showed single photon resolution at 1550 nm. The high uniformity and controllability coupled with the high quality factor, kinetic inductance, and inertness of TiN make these films ideal for use in frequency multiplexed kinetic inductance detectors and other potential applications such as nanowire detectors, transition edge sensors and associated quantum information applications

    Corrugated Silicon Platelet Feed Horn Array for CMB Polarimetry at 150 GHz

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    Next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropy measurements will feature focal plane arrays with more than 600 millimeter-wave detectors. We make use of high-resolution photolithography and wafer-scale etch tools to build planar arrays of corrugated platelet feeds in silicon with highly symmetric beams, low cross-polarization and low side lobes. A compact Au-plated corrugated Si feed designed for 150 GHz operation exhibited performance equivalent to that of electroformed feeds: ~-0.2 dB insertion loss, <-20 dB return loss from 120 GHz to 170 GHz, <-25 dB side lobes and <-23 dB cross-polarization. We are currently fabricating a 50 mm diameter array with 84 horns consisting of 33 Si platelets as a prototype for the SPTpol and ACTpol telescopes. Our fabrication facilities permit arrays up to 150 mm in diameter.Comment: 12 pages; SPIE proceedings for Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy V (Conference 7741, June 2010, San Diego, CA, USA

    Silicon nitride micromesh bolometer arrays for SPIRE

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    We are developing arrays of bolometers based on silicon nitride micromesh absorbers for the Spectral & Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) on the Far Infra-Red and Submillimeter Space Telescope (FIRST). The bolometers are coupled to a close-packed array of 1 f(lambda) feedhorns which views the primary mirror through a cooled aperture stop. Feedhorn-coupled bolometers minimize the detector area and throughput and have good optical efficiency. A 1 f(lambda) feedhorn array provides, higher mapping speed than a 2 f(lambda) feedhorn array and reduces the number of jitters required to produce a fully sampled map, but at the cost of more detectors. Individual silicon nitride micromesh bolometers are already able to meet the performance requirements of SPIRE. In parallel we are developing transition-edge detectors read out by SQUID current amplifier. The relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK enables the array to be coupled to a cold SQUID multiplexer, creating a monolithic fully multiplexed array and making large format arrays possible for SPIRE

    Development of Space-Flight Compatible Room-Temperature Electronics for the Lynx X-Ray Microcalorimeter

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    We are studying the development of space-flight compatible room-temperature electronics for the Lynx x-ray microcalorimeter (LXM) of the Lynx mission. The baseline readout technique for the LXM is microwave SQUID multiplexing. The key modules at room temperature are the RF electronics module and the digital electronics and event processor (DEEP). The RF module functions as frequency converters and mainly consists of local oscillators and I/Q mixers. The DEEP performs demultiplexing and event processing, and mainly consists of field-programmable gate arrays, ADCs, and DACs. We designed the RF electronics and DEEP to be flight ready, and estimated the power, size, and mass of those modules. There are two boxes each for the RF electronics and DEEP for segmentation, and the sizes of the boxes are 13 in: 13 in: 9 in: for the RF electronics and 15.5 in: 11.5 in: 9.5 in: for the DEEP. The estimated masses are 25.1 kgbox for the RF electronics box and 24.1 kgbox for the DEEP box. The maximum operating power for the RF electronics is 141 W or 70.5 Wbox, and for the DEEP box is 615 W or 308 Wbox. The overall power for those modules is 756 W. We describe the detail of the designs as well as the approaches to the estimation of resources, sizes, masses, and powers

    Prototype finline-coupled TES bolometers for CLOVER

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    CLOVER is an experiment which aims to detect the signature of gravitational waves from inflation by measuring the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background. CLOVER consists of three telescopes operating at 97, 150, and 220 GHz. The 97-GHz telescope has 160 feedhorns in its focal plane while the 150 and 220-GHz telescopes have 256 horns each. The horns are arranged in a hexagonal array and feed a polarimeter which uses finline-coupled TES bolometers as detectors. To detect the two polarizations the 97-GHz telescope has 320 detectors while the 150 and 220-GHz telescopes have 512 detectors each. To achieve the target NEPs (1.5, 2.5, and 4.5x10^-17 W/rtHz) the detectors are cooled to 100 mK for the 97 and 150-GHz polarimeters and 230 mK for the 220-GHz polarimeter. Each detector is fabricated as a single chip to ensure a 100% operational focal plane. The detectors are contained in linear modules made of copper which form split-block waveguides. The detector modules contain 16 or 20 detectors each for compatibility with the hexagonal arrays of horns in the telescopes' focal planes. Each detector module contains a time-division SQUID multiplexer to read out the detectors. Further amplification of the multiplexed signals is provided by SQUID series arrays. The first prototype detectors for CLOVER operate with a bath temperature of 230 mK and are used to validate the detector design as well as the polarimeter technology. We describe the design of the CLOVER detectors, detector blocks, and readout, and present preliminary measurements of the prototype detectors performance.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures; to appear in the Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, held 10-12 May 2006 in Pari

    Photon-noise limited sensitivity in titanium nitride kinetic inductance detectors

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    We demonstrate photon-noise limited performance at sub-millimeter wavelengths in feedhorn-coupled, microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) made of a TiN/Ti/TiN trilayer superconducting film, tuned to have a transition temperature of 1.4~K. Micro-machining of the silicon-on-insulator wafer backside creates a quarter-wavelength backshort optimized for efficient coupling at 250~\micron. Using frequency read out and when viewing a variable temperature blackbody source, we measure device noise consistent with photon noise when the incident optical power is >>~0.5~pW, corresponding to noise equivalent powers >>~3×1017\times 10^{-17} W/Hz\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}. This sensitivity makes these devices suitable for broadband photometric applications at these wavelengths

    SuperCDMS Cold Hardware Design

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    We discuss the current design of the cold hardware and cold electronics to be used in the upcoming SuperCDMS Soudan deployment. Engineering challenges associated with such concerns as thermal isolation, microphonics, radiopurity, and power dissipation are discussed, along with identifying the design changes necessary for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) employs ultrapure 1-inch thick, 3-inch diameter germanium crystals operating below 50 mK in a dilution cryostat. These detectors give an ionization and phonon signal, which gives us rejection capabilities regarding background events versus dark matter signals.United States. Dept. of Energy (Grant DEAC02-76SF00515)United States. Dept. of Energy (Contract DC-AC02-07CH11359)National Science Foundation (U.S.) (Awards 0705052, 0902182, 1004714 and 0802575
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