101 research outputs found

    The Volatility Trend of Protosolar and Terrestrial Elemental Abundances

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    We present new estimates of protosolar elemental abundances based on an improved combination of solar photospheric abundances and CI chondritic abundances. These new estimates indicate CI chondrites and solar abundances are consistent for 60 elements. We compare our new protosolar abundances with our recent estimates of bulk Earth composition (normalized to aluminium), thereby quantifying the devolatilization in going from the solar nebula to the formation of the Earth. The quantification yields a linear trend log(f)=αlog(TC)+β\log(f) = \alpha\log(T_C) + \beta, where ff is the Earth-to-Sun abundance ratio and TCT_C is the 50%\% condensation temperature of elements. The best fit coefficients are: α=3.676±0.142\alpha = 3.676\pm 0.142 and β=11.556±0.436\beta = -11.556\pm 0.436. The quantification of these parameters constrains models of devolatilization processes. For example, the coefficients α\alpha and β\beta determine a critical devolatilization temperature for the Earth TD(E)=1391±15T_{\mathrm{D}}(\mathrm{E}) = 1391 \pm 15 K. The terrestrial abundances of elements with TC<TD(E)T_{C} < T_{\mathrm{D}}(\mathrm{E}) are depleted compared with solar abundances, whereas the terrestrial abundances of elements with TC>TD(E)T_{C} > T_{\mathrm{D}}(\mathrm{E}) are indistinguishable from solar abundances. The terrestrial abundance of Hg (TCT_C = 252 K) appears anomalously high under the assumption that solar and CI chondrite Hg abundances are identical. To resolve this anomaly, we propose that CI chondrites have been depleted in Hg relative to the Sun by a factor of 13±713\pm7. We use the best-fit volatility trend to derive the fractional distribution of carbon and oxygen between volatile and refractory components (fvolf_\mathrm{vol}, freff_\mathrm{ref}). We find (0.91±0.080.91\pm 0.08, 0.09±0.080.09 \pm 0.08) for carbon and (0.80±0.040.80 \pm 0.04, 0.20±0.040.20 \pm 0.04) for oxygen.Comment: Accepted for publication in Icarus. 28 pages, 12 figures, 5 tables. Compared to v1, the results and conclusion are the same, while discussion of results and implications is expanded considerabl

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase–3 (TIMP-3) induces FAS dependent apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells

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    Over expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induces apoptosis and reduces neointima formation occurring after saphenous vein interposition grafting or coronary stenting. In studies to address the mechanism of TIMP-3-driven apoptosis in human VSMCs we find that TIMP-3 increased activation of caspase-8 and apoptosis was inhibited by expression of Cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) and dominant negative FAS-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD). TIMP-3 induced apoptosis did not cause mitochondrial depolarisation, increase activation of caspase-9 and was not inhibited by over-expression of B-cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), indicating a mitochondrial independent/type-I death receptor pathway. TIMP-3 increased levels of the First Apoptosis Signal receptor (FAS) and depletion of FAS with shRNA showed TIMP-3-induced apoptosis was FAS dependent. TIMP-3 induced formation of the Death-Inducing Signalling Complex (DISC), as detected by immunoprecipitation and by immunofluorescence. Cellular-FADD-like IL-1 converting enzyme-Like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) localised with FAS at the cell periphery in the absence of TIMP-3 and this localisation was lost on TIMP-3 expression with c-FLIP adopting a perinuclear localisation. Although TIMP-3 inhibited FAS shedding, this did not increase total surface levels of FAS but instead increased FAS levels within localised regions at the cell surface. A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is inhibited by TIMP-3 and depletion of ADAM17 with shRNA significantly decreased FAS shedding. However ADAM17 depletion did not induce apoptosis or replicate the effects of TIMP-3 by increasing localised clustering of cell surface FAS. ADAM17-depleted cells could activate caspase-3 when expressing levels of TIMP-3 that were otherwise sub-apoptotic, suggesting a partial role for ADAM17 mediated ectodomain shedding in TIMP-3 mediated apoptosis. We conclude that TIMP-3 induced apoptosis in VSMCs is highly dependent on FAS and is associated with changes in FAS and c-FLIP localisation, but is not solely dependent on shedding of the FAS ectodomain

    Where does India end and Eurasia begin?

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    The Indus Suture Zone is defined as the plate boundary between India and Eurasia. Here we document geochronological data that suggest that Indian rocks outcrop to the north of this suture zone. The inherited age spectrum of zircons from mylonitic gneiss collected in the southern part of the Karakorum Batholith is similar to those obtained from the Himalayan Terrane, the Pamir and is apparently Gondwanan in its affinity. These data are taken to indicate that the Karakorum Terrane was once a component of Gondwana, or at least derived from the erosion of Gondwanan material. Several continental ribbons (including the Karakorum Terrane) were rifted from the northern margin of Gondwana and accreted to Eurasia prior to India-Eurasia collision. Many therefore consider the Karakorum Terrane is the southern margin of Eurasia. However, we do not know if rifting led to the creation of a new microplate(s) or simply attenuated crust between Gondwana and these continental ribbons. Thus there is a problem using inherited and detrital age data to distinguish what is Indian and what is Eurasian crust. These findings have implications for other detrital/inherited zircon studies where these data are used to draw inferences about the tectonic history of various terranes around the world

    Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

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    OBJECTIVE: This review details the anatomy and interactions of the postural and somatosensory reflexes. We attempt to identify the important role the nervous system plays in maintaining reflex control of the spine and posture. We also review, illustrate, and discuss how the human vertebral column develops, functions, and adapts to Earth's gravity in an upright position. We identify functional characteristics of the postural reflexes by reporting previous observations of subjects during periods of microgravity or weightlessness. BACKGROUND: Historically, chiropractic has centered around the concept that the nervous system controls and regulates all other bodily systems; and that disruption to normal nervous system function can contribute to a wide variety of common ailments. Surprisingly, the chiropractic literature has paid relatively little attention to the importance of neurological regulation of static upright human posture. With so much information available on how posture may affect health and function, we felt it important to review the neuroanatomical structures and pathways responsible for maintaining the spine and posture. Maintenance of static upright posture is regulated by the nervous system through the various postural reflexes. Hence, from a chiropractic standpoint, it is clinically beneficial to understand how the individual postural reflexes work, as it may explain some of the clinical presentations seen in chiropractic practice. METHOD: We performed a manual search for available relevant textbooks, and a computer search of the MEDLINE, MANTIS, and Index to Chiropractic Literature databases from 1970 to present, using the following key words and phrases: "posture," "ocular," "vestibular," "cervical facet joint," "afferent," "vestibulocollic," "cervicocollic," "postural reflexes," "spaceflight," "microgravity," "weightlessness," "gravity," "posture," and "postural." Studies were selected if they specifically tested any or all of the postural reflexes either in Earth's gravity or in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review. DISCUSSION: It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments. CONCLUSION: Visual and vestibular input, as well as joint and soft tissue mechanoreceptors, are major players in the regulation of static upright posture. Each of these input sources detects and responds to specific types of postural stimulus and perturbations, and each region has specific pathways by which it communicates with other postural reflexes, as well as higher central nervous system structures. This review of the postural reflex structures and mechanisms adds to the growing body of posture rehabilitation literature relating specifically to chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic interest in these reflexes may enhance the ability of chiropractic physicians to treat and correct global spine and posture disorders. With the knowledge and understanding of these postural reflexes, chiropractors can evaluate spinal configurations not only from a segmental perspective, but can also determine how spinal dysfunction may be the ultimate consequence of maintaining an upright posture in the presence of other postural deficits. These perspectives need to be explored in more detail

    EPSL Trace elements in diamond inclusions from eclogites reveal link to Archean granites

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    Abstract We report trace element data for rare garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions trapped within diamonds occurring in eclogite xenoliths from the Siberian craton. These inclusions are more depleted in incompatible trace elements and have lower Mg# than the eclogite host minerals, reflecting metasomatic enrichment of the eclogites after diamond formation by high Mg# melts that are enriched in incompatible trace elements (such as kimberlites). A reconstructed whole rock composition (using inclusion data) is severely depleted in light rare earth elements and niobium but shows a marked strontium enrichment. The melt in equilibrium with this eclogite is calculated to have had very high La/Yb and Sr/Nd and is Nb depleted (if futile is present), characteristics similar to those of some convergent margin magmas but most especially Archean tonalitic rocks. Experimental petrologic studies demonstrate that eclogites of the type described here are in equilibrium with silicic melts such as tonalites or trondhjemites. Thus, both our trace element data and petrological considerations are consistent with the eclogites forming in equilibrium with Archean tonalitic or trondhjemitic magmas. Our data may therefore comprise the first evidence for the fate of these voluminous residues. A corollary of our findings is that trace element and isotopic data from eclogite minerals must be interpreted with caution because of the eclogite&apos;s complex evolutionary history. Specifically, models of early Earth differentiation based on isotopic data from Siberian cclogites [1,2] require re-evaluation

    The operational environment and rotational acceleration of asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx observations

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    During its approach to asteroid (101955) Bennu, NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft surveyed Bennu's immediate environment, photometric properties, and rotation state. Discovery of a dusty environment, a natural satellite, or unexpected asteroid characteristics would have had consequences for the mission's safety and observation strategy. Here we show that spacecraft observations during this period were highly sensitive to satellites (sub-meter scale) but reveal none, although later navigational images indicate that further investigation is needed. We constrain average dust production in September 2018 from Bennu's surface to an upper limit of 150 g s(-1) averaged over 34 min. Bennu's disk-integrated photometric phase function validates measurements from the pre-encounter astronomical campaign. We demonstrate that Bennu's rotation rate is accelerating continuously at 3.63 +/- 0.52 x 10(-6) degrees day(-2), likely due to the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect, with evolutionary implications.This material is based upon work supported by NASA under Contract NNM10AA11C issued through the New Frontiers Program. This work made use of sbpy (http://sbpy. org), a community-driven Python package for small-body planetary astronomy supported by NASA PDART Grant No. 80NSSC18K0987. A portion of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. M.A.B. and S.F. acknowledge financial support from CNES

    Tungsten isotopic compositions in stardust SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite: Constraints on the s-process in the Hf-Ta-W-Re-Os region

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    We report the first tungsten isotopic measurements in stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains recovered from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. The isotopes 182W, 183W, 184W, 186W and 179Hf, 180Hf were measured on both an aggregate (KJB fraction) and single stardust SiC grains (LS+LU fraction) believed to have condensed in the outflows of low-mass carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The SiC aggregate shows small deviations from terrestrial (=solar) composition in the 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, with deficits in 182W and 183W with respect to 184W. The 186W/184W ratio, however, shows no apparent deviation from the solar value. Tungsten isotopic measurements in single mainstream stardust SiC grains revealed lower than solar 182W/184W, 183W/184W, and 186W/184W ratios. We have compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of W isotopic ratios in the envelopes of AGB stars. These ratios are affected by the slow neutron-capture process and match the SiC data regarding their 182W/184W, 183W/184W, and 179Hf/180Hf isotopic compositions, although a small adjustment in the s-process production of 183W is needed in order to have a better agreement between the SiC data and model predictions. The models cannot explain the 186W/184W ratios observed in the SiC grains, even when the current 185W neutron-capture cross section is increased by a factor of two. Further study is required to better assess how model uncertainties (e.g., the formation of the 13C neutron source, the mass-loss law, the modelling of the third dredge-up, and the efficiency of the 22Ne neutron source) may affect current s-process predictions.Comment: Accepted for Publication on The Astrophysical Journal 43 pages, 2 tables, 7 figure

    Reconnaissance Basement Geology and Tectonics of South Zealandia

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    We report new U‐Pb zircon ages, geochemical and isotopic data for Mesozoic igneous rocks, and new seismic interpretations of mostly submerged South Zealandia (1.5 Mkm2). We use these data, along with existing geological and geophysical data sets, to refine the extent and nature of geological units. Our new 1:25 M geological map of South Zealandia provides a regional framework to investigate the rifting and breakup that formed Zealandia, Earth's most submerged continent. Samples of prerift (pre‐100 Ma) plutonic rocks can be matched with on‐land New Zealand igneous suites and indicate an east‐west strike for the subduction‐related 260 to 105‐Ma Median Batholith across the Campbell Plateau. The plutonic chronology of formerly contiguous plutonic rocks in West Antarctica reveals similar pulses and lulls to the Median Batholith. Contrary to previous interpretations, the Median Batholith does not coincide with the 1,600‐km‐long Campbell Magnetic Anomaly System. Instead we interpret the continental magnetic anomalies to represent a mainly mafic igneous unit, whose shape and extent is controlled by synrift structures related to Gondwana breakup. Correlatives of some of these unsampled igneous rocks may be exposed as circa 85 Ma alkalic volcanic rocks on the Chatham Islands. Extension directions varied by up to 65° from 100 to 80 Ma, and we suggest this allowed this large area to thin considerably before final rupture to form new oceanic crust. Synrift (90–80 Ma) structures cut the oroclinal bend in southern South Island and support a pre‐early Late Cretaceous age of orocline formation.The work was supported by Core Research Funding to GNS Science by the New Zealand Government Ministry of Business, Employment and Innovation