11,237 research outputs found

### How the orbital period of a test particle is modified by the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati gravity?

In addition to the pericentre \omega, the mean anomaly M and, thus, the mean
longitude \lambda, also the orbital period Pb and the mean motion $n$ of a test
particle are modified by the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati gravity. While the
correction to Pb depends on the mass of the central body and on the geometrical
features of the orbital motion around it, the correction to $n$ is independent
of them, up to terms of second order in the eccentricity $e$. The latter one
amounts to about 2\times 10^-3 arcseconds per century. The present-day accuracy
in determining the mean motions of the inner planets of the Solar System from
radar ranging and differential Very Long Baseline Interferometry is
10^-2-5\times 10^-3 arcseconds per century, but it should be improved in the
near future when the data from the spacecraft to Mercury and Venus will be
available.Comment: LaTex, 7 pages, 13 references, no tables, no figures. Section 2.3
added. To appear in JCA

### Perspectives in measuring the PPN parameters beta and gamma in the Earth's gravitational fields with the CHAMP/GRACE models

The current bounds on the PPN parameters gamma and beta are of the order of
10^-4-10^-5. Various missions aimed at improving such limits by several orders
of magnitude have more or less recently been proposed like LATOR, ASTROD,
BepiColombo and GAIA. They involve the use of various spacecraft, to be
launched along interplanetary trajectories, for measuring the effects of the
solar gravity on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper we
investigate what is needed to measure the combination nu=(2+2gamma-beta)/3 of
the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric Einstein perigee precession of a test
particle to an accuracy of about 10^-5 with a pair of drag-free spacecraft in
the Earth's gravitational field. It turns out that the latest gravity models
from the dedicated CHAMP and GRACE missions would allow to reduce the
systematic error of gravitational origin just to this demanding level of
accuracy. In regard to the non-gravitational errors, the spectral noise density
of the drag-free sensors required to reach such level of accuracy would amounts
to 10^-8-10^-9 cm s^-2 Hz^-1/2 over very low frequencies. Although not yet
obtainable with the present technologies, such level of compensation is much
less demanding than those required for, e.g., LISA. As a by-product, an
independent measurement of the post-Newtonian gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring
effect with a 0.9% accuracy would be possible as well. The forthcoming Earth
gravity models from CHAMP and GRACE will further reduce the systematic
gravitational errors in both of such tests.Comment: LaTex2e, 14 pages, 3 tables, no figures, 75 references. To appear in
Int. J. Mod. Phys.

### The dynamical nature of time

It is usually assumed that the "$t$" parameter in the equations of dynamics
can be identified with the indication of the pointer of a clock. Things are not
so easy, however. In fact, since the equations of motion can be written in
terms of $t$ but also of $t'=f(t)$, $f$ being any well behaved function, each
one of those infinite parametric times $t'$ is as good as the Newtonian one to
study classical dynamics. Here we show that the relation between the
mathematical parametric time $t$ in the equations of dynamics and the physical
dynamical time $\sigma$ that is measured with clocks is more complex and subtle
than usually assumed. These two times, therefore, must be carefully
distinguished since their difference may have significant consequences.
Furthermore, we show that not all the dynamical clock-times are necessarily
equivalent and that the observational fingerprint of this non-equivalence has
the same form as that of the Pioneer anomaly.Comment: 13 pages, no figure

### Secular increase of the Astronomical Unit and perihelion precessions as tests of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati multi-dimensional braneworld scenario

An unexpected secular increase of the Astronomical Unit, the length scale of
the Solar System, has recently been reported by three different research groups
(Krasinsky and Brumberg, Pitjeva, Standish). The latest JPL measurements amount
to 7+-2 m cy^-1. At present, there are no explanations able to accommodate such
an observed phenomenon, neither in the realm of classical physics nor in the
usual four-dimensional framework of the Einsteinian General Relativity. The
Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld scenario, which is a multi-dimensional model
of gravity aimed to the explanation of the observed cosmic acceleration without
dark energy, predicts, among other things, a perihelion secular shift, due to
Lue and Starkman, of 5 10^-4 arcsec cy^-1 for all the planets of the Solar
System. It yields a variation of about 6 m cy^-1 for the Earth-Sun distance
which is compatible at 1-sigma level with the observed rate of the Astronomical
Unit. The recently measured corrections to the secular motions of the perihelia
of the inner planets of the Solar System are in agreement, at 1-sigma level,
with the predicted value of the Lue-Starkman effect for Mercury and Mars and at
2-sigma level for the Earth.Comment: LaTex2e, 7 pages, no figures, no tables, 13 references. Minor
correction

### Expressing the tacit knowledge of a digital library system as linked data

Library organizations have enthusiastically undertaken semantic web initiatives and in particular the data publishing as linked data. Nevertheless, different surveys report the experimental nature of initiatives and the consumer difficulty in re-using data. These barriers are a hindrance for using linked datasets, as an infrastructure that enhances the library and related information services. This paper presents an approach for encoding, as a Linked Vocabulary, the "tacit" knowledge of the information system that manages the data source. The objective is the improvement of the interpretation process of the linked data meaning of published datasets. We analyzed a digital library system, as a case study, for prototyping the "semantic data management" method, where data and its knowledge are natively managed, taking into account the linked data pillars. The ultimate objective of the semantic data management is to curate the correct consumers' interpretation of data, and to facilitate the proper re-use. The prototype defines the ontological entities representing the knowledge, of the digital library system, that is not stored in the data source, nor in the existing ontologies related to the system's semantics. Thus we present the local ontology and its matching with existing ontologies, Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) and Metadata Objects Description Schema (MODS), and we discuss linked data triples prototyped from the legacy relational database, by using the local ontology. We show how the semantic data management, can deal with the inconsistency of system data, and we conclude that a specific change in the system developer mindset, it is necessary for extracting and "codifying" the tacit knowledge, which is necessary to improve the data interpretation process

### The relativistic precession of the orbits

The relativistic precession can be quickly inferred from the nonlinear polar
orbit equation without actually solving it.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astrophysics & Space Scienc

### Can Solar System observations tell us something about the cosmological constant?

In this note we show that the latest determinations of the residual Mercury's
perihelion advance, obtained by accounting for almost all known Newtonian and
post-Newtonian orbital effects, yields only very broad constraints on the
cosmological constant. Indeed, from \delta\dot\omega=-0.0036 + - 0.0050
arcseconds per century one gets -2 10^-34 km^-2 < Lambda < 4 10^-35 km^-2. The
currently accepted value for Lambda, obtained from many independent
cosmological and large-scale measurements, amounts to almost 10^-46 km^-2.Comment: Latex2e, 4 pages, 2 table, no figures, 11 references. Table 2 added,
typos in the units of Lambda correcte

### On the Space-Time Symmetries of Non-Commutative Gauge Theories

We study the space-time symmetries and transformation properties of the
non-commutative U(1) gauge theory, by using Noether charges. We carry out our
analysis by keeping an open view on the possible ways $\theta^{\mu \nu}$ could
transform. We conclude that $\theta^{\mu \nu}$ cannot transform under any
space-time transformation since the theory is not invariant under the conformal
transformations, with the only exception of space-time translations. The same
analysis applies to other gauge groups.Comment: 6 pages, RevTe

### Quantization of scalar fields in curved background, deformed Hopf algebra and entanglement

A suitable deformation of the Hopf algebra of the creation and annihilation
operators for a complex scalar field, initially quantized in Minkowski
space--time, induces the canonical quantization of the same field in a generic
gravitational background. The deformation parameter q turns out to be related
to the gravitational field. The entanglement of the quantum vacuum appears to
be robust against interaction with the environment.Comment: 4 pages, to appear in Proceedings of the XXIV International
Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, Paris, 14-21 July 200

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