36 research outputs found

    A Software Exoskeleton to Protect and Support Citizen's Ethics and Privacy in the Digital World

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    Citizens of the digital world are threatened. The digital systems that surround them are increasingly able to make autonomous decisions over and above them and on their behalf. They feel that their moral rights, as well as the social, economic, and political spheres, can be affected by the behavior of such systems. Although unavoidable, the digital world is becoming uncomfortable and potentially hostile to its users as human beings and as citizens. Notwithstanding the introduction of the GDPR and of initiatives to establish criteria on software transparency and accountability, users feel vulnerable and unprotected. In this paper, we present EXOSOUL, an overarching research framework that aims at building a software a personalized exoskeleton that enhances and protects users by mediating their interactions with the digital world according to their own ethics of actions and privacy of data. The exoskeleton disallows or adapts the interactions that would result in unacceptable or morally wrong behaviors according to the ethics and privacy preferences of the users. With their software shield, users will feel empowered and in control, and more in the balance of forces with the other actors of the digital world. To reach the breakthrough result of automatically building a personalized exoskeleton, EXOSOUL identifies multidisciplinary challenges never touched before: 1) defining the scope for and inferring citizen's ethical preferences; 2) treating privacy as an ethical dimension managed through the disruptive notion of active data; and 3) automatically synthesizing ethical actuators, i.e., connector components that mediate the interaction between the user and the digital world to enforce her ethical preferences. In this paper, we discuss the research challenges of EXOSOUL in terms of their feasibility and risks

    The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

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    Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS 65 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA; moreover, it might express prognostic potential for clustering the patient population in risk classes. Confirmatory studies are required

    PD45-01\u2003ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL ANAESTHETIC WOUNDS INFILTRATION AND ULTRASOUND TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINAL PLANE (US-TAP) BLOCK IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROBOT-ASSISTED RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY: A DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

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    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To determinate bene\ufb01ts of the association of local anaesthetic wounds in\ufb01ltration and US-TAPblock with ropivacaine on postoperative pain, early recovery and hospital stay in patients undergoing robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). METHODS: The study is double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Our hypothesis was that the association of wound in\ufb01ltration and US-TAP block with Ropivacaine would decrease immediate postoperative pain and opioids use. Primary outcomes included postoperative pain and opioids demand during the hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were nausea/vomiting rate, stool passing time, use of pro-kinetics, length of hospital stay and 30-days readmission to the hospital for pain or other US-TAP-block related complications RESULTS: A total of 100 patients who underwent RARP were eligible for the analysis; 57 received the US-TAP block with 20 ml of 0.35% Ropivacaine (US-TAP-block group) and 43 did not receive USTAP block (no-US-TAP group). All the patients received the local wound anaesthetic in\ufb01ltration with 20 ml of 0.35% Ropivacaine. USTAP block group showed a decreased mean NRS (2.7vs1.8; p[0.04) and reduced use of opioid (8 vs 2; p[0.01) in the \ufb01rst 24 h. Moreover, we found a shorter mean LOS (4.7 vs 4.2; p[ 0.04) with a reduced use of pro-kinetics during the hospital stay (31 vs 12; p<0.001). No US-TAP-block related complications to were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Association of anaesthetic wound in\ufb01ltration and US-TAP block with Ropivacaine as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen can be safely offered to patients undergoing RARP and ePLND. It improves the immediate post-operative pain control, reducing opioids administration and is associated to a decreased use of pro-kinetics and shorter hospital stay

    Initial Architectural Style for CHOReOS Choreographies (D1.3)

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    While the development of CHOReOS systems build on well-known paradigms associated with service-oriented architectures (e.g., services, service bus and service choreography), the supporting architectural style re- quires accounting for the challenges posed by the future Internet, i.e., ultra large scale, high heterogeneity, increased mobility, and awareness & adaptability. This deliverable then revisits the traditional definitions of service-oriented component (i.e., service), connector (interaction protocol and related service bus for interop- erability) and configuration (system-wide architecture composing services according to orchestration or more general choreography patterns) to meet the FI challenges. Specifically, CHOReOS components enable lever- aging the diversity of Web-based services that integrate in the FI (i.e., WS∗ and RESTful web-based services, and from business to thing-based services) as well as the ultra large service base envisioned for the FI. As for CHOReOS connectors, they bring together the highly heterogeneous interaction paradigms that are now used in today's increasingly complex distributed systems and further support interoperability across heterogeneous paradigms. Finally, CHOReOS coordination protocols foster choreography-based coordination for the sake of scalability, while preventing undesired behavior (i.e., undesired service interactions that would violate the specified choreography). A key aspect of the proposed CHOReOS architectural style is to introduce novel ab- stractions for all its elements, which enable leveraging the wide diversity of the FI, in all the dimensions of scale, heterogeneity and mobility. The CHOReOS style further sets the base ground for the development (from design to implementation) of the CHOReOS Integrated Development and Runtime Environment, and especially for the specification and design of choreography-based systems (studied in WP2 complemented with WP4 work on Governance and V&V) and the development of the CHOReOS service-oriented middleware (studied in WP3)

    Final CHOReOS Architectural Style and its Relation with the CHOReOS Development Process and IDRE

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    This is Part b of Deliverable D1.4, which specifies the final CHOReOS architectural style, that is, the types of components, connectors, and configurations that are composed within the Future Internet of services, as enabled by the CHOReOS technologies developed in WP2 to WP4 and integrated in the WP5 IDRE. The definition of the CHOReOS architectural style is especially guided by the objective of meeting the challenges posed by the Future Internet, i.e.: (i) the ultra large base of services and of consumers, (ii) the high heterogeneity of the services that get composed, from the ones offered by tiny things to the ones hosted on powerful cloud computing infrastructures, (iii) the increasing predominance of mobile consumers and services, which take over the original fixed Inter- net, and (iv) the required awareness of, and related adaptation to, the continuous environmental changes. Another critical challenge posed by the Future Internet is that of security, trust and privacy. However, the study of technologies dedicated to enforcing security, privacy and trust is beyond the scope of the CHOReOS project; instead, state of the art technologies and possibly latest results from projects focused on security solutions are built upon for the development of CHOReOS use cases -if and when needed-. The CHOReOS architectural style that is presented in this deliverable refines the definition of the early style introduced in Deliverable D1.3. Key features of the CHOReOS architectural elements are as follows: (1) The CHOReOS service-based components are technology agnostic and allow for the abstraction of the large diversity of Future Internet services, and particularly traditional Business services as well as Thing-based services; a key contribution of the component formalization lies in the inference of service abstractions that allows grouping services that are functionally similar in a systematic way, and thereby contributes to facing the ULS of the Future Internet together with dealing with system adaptation through service substitution. (2) The CHOReOS middleware-layer connectors span the variety of interaction paradigms, both discrete and continuous, which are used in today's increasingly complex distributed systems, as opposed to enforcing a single interaction paradigm that is commonly undertaken in traditional SOA; a central contribution of the connector formalization is the introduction of a multi-paradigm connector type, which not solely allows having highly heterogeneous services composed in the Future Internet but also having those heterogeneous services interoperating even if based on distinct interaction paradigms. (3) The CHOReOS coordination protocols introduce the third and last type of architectural elements char- acterizing the CHOReOS style. They specifically define the structure and behavior of service-oriented systems within the Future Internet as the fully distributed composition of services, i.e., choreographies; the key contribution of the work lies in a systematic model-based solution to choreography realizability, which synthesizes dedicated coordination delegates that govern the coordination of services

    A Development Process for Requirements Based Service Choreography

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    Abstract—The Future Internet envisions a ubiquitous world where available services can be easily discovered and coordinated so to fit users ’ requirements and needs. Service choreographies will play a central role in this vision as an effective means to allow heterogeneous services to suitably collaborate. This paper describes our experience of choreography development within the CHOReOS project. I

    A Model-Based Synthesis Process for Choreography Realizability Enforcement

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    Producing software by integration: challenges and research directions (keynote)

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    International audienceSoftware is increasingly produced according to a certain goal and by integrating existing software produced by third-parties, typically black-box, and often provided without a machine readable documentation. This implies that development processes of the next future have to explicitly deal with an inherent incompleteness of information about existing software, notably on its behaviour. Therefore, on one side a software producer will less and less know the precise behaviour of a third party software service, on the other side she will need to use it to build her own application. In this paper we present an innovative development process to automatically produce dependable software systems by integrating existing services under uncertainty and according to the specied goal. Moreover, we (i) discuss important challenges that must be faced while producing the kind of systems we are targeting, (ii) give an overview of the state of art related to the identied challenges, and finally (iii) provide research directions to address these challenges

    Integration architecture synthesis for taming uncertainty in the digital Space

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    International audienceThe abundance of software that will be available in the next future will promote the production of appropriate integration means (architectures, connectors, integration patterns). The produced software will need to be able to evolve, react and adapt quickly to a continuously changing environment, while guaranteeing dependability through (on-the-fly) validation. The strongest adversary to this view is the lack of knowledge on the software, notably on its structure, behaviour, and execution context. Despite the possibility to extract observational models from existing software, a producer will always operate with software artefacts that exhibit a degree of uncertainty in terms of their functional and non functional characteristics. Uncertainty can only be controlled by making it explicit and by using it to drive the production process itself. This calls for a production process that explores available software and assesses its degree of uncertainty in relation to the opportunistic goal G, assists the producer in creating the appropriate integration means towards G, and validates the quality of the integrated system with respect to the goal G and the current context. In this paper we discuss how goal-oriented software systems can be opportunistically created by integrating under uncertainty existing pieces of software
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