1,064 research outputs found

    Studies on Neuromuscular Blocking Agents and Their Antagonists During Anaesthesia

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    Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are widely used in clinical anaesthesia and emergency medicine. Main objectives are to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to allow surgery by reducing muscle tone and eliminating sudden movements, which may otherwise lead to trauma and complications. The most commonly used NMBAs are non-depolarizing agents with a medium duration of action, such as rocuronium and cisatracurium. They bind to the acetylcholine receptors in the neuromuscular junction, thus inhibiting the depolarization of the postsynaptic (muscular) membrane, which is a prerequisite for muscle contraction to take place. Previously, it has been assumed that nitrous oxide (N2O), which is commonly used in combination with volatile or intravenous anaesthetics during general anaesthesia, has no effect on NMBAs. Several studies have since claimed that N2O in fact does increase the effect of NMBAs when using bolus administration of the relaxant. The effect of N2O on the infusion requirements of two NMBAs (rocuronium and cisatracurium) with completely different molecular structure and pharmacological properties was assessed. A closed-loop feedback controlled infusion of NMBA with duration of at least 90 minutes at a 90% level of neuromuscular block was used. All patients received total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil. In both studies the study group (n=35) received N2O/Oxygen and the control group (n=35) Air/Oxygen. There were no significant differences in the mean steady state infusion requirements of NMBA (rocuronium in Study I; cisatracurium in Study II) between the groups in either study. In Study III the duration of the unsafe period of recovery after reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by using neostigmine or sugammadex as a reversal agent was analyzed. The unsafe period of recovery was defined as the time elapsed from the moment of no clinical (visual) fade in the train-of-four (TOF) sequence until an objectively measured TOF-ratio of 0.90 was achieved. The duration of these periods were 10.3 ¬Ī 5.5 and 0.3 ¬Ī 0.3 min after neostigmine and sugammadex, respectively (P < 0.001). Study IV investigated the possible effect of reversal of a rocuronium NMB by sugammadex on depth of anaesthesia as indicated by the bispectral index and entropy levels in thirty patients. Sugammadex did not affect the level of anaesthesia as determined by EEG-derived indices of anaesthetic depth such as the bispectral index and entropy.Siirretty Doriast

    Embracing complexity: the post-secular pilgrimage of Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt

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    This article deals with the phenomenon of pilgrimage as a personal transformative process; an exploration of spiritual space rather than a journey undertaken to a physical place. The analysis focuses on the life story and authorship of the novelist and playwright Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt (b. 1960). Schmitt began his career as an academic philosopher specialised in enlightenment rationality. A mystical experience in the deserts of Sahara, however, opened his eyes to the spiritual dimensions of reality and encouraged him to redirect his professional strivings from academic writing to fiction. Today, Schmitt has reached a world-wide audience with his plays and novels on interreligious dialogue, especially the series of five short novellas called Le cycle d‚ÄôInvisible. These narratives all deal with inter-religious encounters in a complex and compassionate way as Schmitt is particularly concerned with preserving the mystery of the situations he describes. The atheist conviction of his previous life has thus given way to an agnostic and mystically inspired world view focusing on diversity, divinity and inexplicability: ‚ÄúI am obsessed with complexity‚ÄĚ, as he puts it himself. The presentation is based on ethnographic material, and key themes to be addressed include pilgrimage as a spiritual journey, interreligious encounters and mystical experiences

    Aboagora - Between Arts and Sciences

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    The editorial note presents the journal and the current issue. The purpose of this e-journal is to contribute to the plurality of voices in the academic discussion on religion. Approaching Religion aims at offering an accessible, open and explorative forum for scholarly debate on timely issues and concepts related to the study of religion and culture. In order to fulfil the goals of availability and visibility, we have created our journal as an online, open access publication, supported by the internationally compatible Open Journal Systems (OJS) platform. Approaching Religion is primarily a publication channel for articles presented at seminars and conferences arranged by the Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History in √Öbo, Finland. The journal addresses an international readership and our aim is to present articles of highest academic standard that approach the field of religion from a broad, theoretically and methodologically diverse perspective

    Response to Melissa Raphael

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    A response to Melissa Raphael‚Äôs article ‚ÄėThe creation of beauty by its destruction: the idoloclastic aesthetic in modern and contemporary Jewish art‚Äô. Key themes discussed include the notion of human beings as created in the image of God, Levinas‚Äôs understanding of the face and its ethical demand as well as the contemporary issue of the commodification of the human face in digital media

    Susanne Levin: an example of Jewish tradition represented in a literary setting

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    A literary work ‚Äď a novel ‚Äď is the focus of this presentation. My interest of research lies in the psychological aspects of religion and its diverse expressions in literary settings. The novel chosen is written by the Swedish author Susanne Levin. The story is about Lea born in 1950 and brought up in the tradition of Judaism in Uppsala, Sweden. We see anger and compassion at work, we encounter reaction to evil, we sense Lea‚Äôs feelings of guilt, her gratitude, love, hatred, grief, and joy: Lea‚Äôs story gives a vivid account of life in a Scandinavian Jewish family. One major influence in Lea‚Äôs life was the fact that her mother was a survivor from the Nazi death camps and had decided to keep silent about the terrible things in her past. In the novel, the expression is given that religion became an important factor in Lea‚Äôs struggle. The theoretical reasoning is developed within the framework of an integrated object relations perspective. The basic view of reality underlying this theoretical perspective holds that human issues are related rather than isolated, and that human conditions cannot be in just any fashion and still support life

    Lantbruksbokföring : Introduktion till lantbruksbokföring för tradenomer

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    I mitt examensarbete har jag valt att skriva en introduktion till lantbruksbokföring. Målet är att en tradenom som arbetar med bokföring bättre skall förstå och kunna arbeta med lantbruksbokföring. Examensarbetet är skrivet ur bokföringsperspektiv. Jag har valt att ingående behandla jordbruksbokföring och skriva litet mera ytligt om skogsbruksbokföring. Ett kapitel tar upp företagsbokföring i korthet. I examensarbetet beskrivs skillnader och likheter mellan lantbruksbokföring och företagsbokföring utgående från företagsbokföringen. Eftersom tradenom utbildningen endast tar upp de olika företagsformernas bokföring. Undersökningsmetoden i arbetet är en djupgående intervju med en bokförare som arbetar med och har flera års erfarenhet av bokföring för både företag och lantbruk. Den person som jag intervjuade har avlagt agronom examen.Opinnäytetyössäni olen laatinut maatalouskirjanpidon johdannon tradenomille, joka työssään joutuu tekemisiin maatalouden kirjanpidon kanssa. Olen perehtynyt perusteellisesti maatalouden kirjanpitoon ja jonkin verran metsätalouden kirjanpitoon. Työhön sisältyy myös lyhyt luku yrityskirjanpidosta. Opinnäytetyössäni tarkastelen myös maatalous- ja yrityskirjanpidon eroja ja yhtenäisyyksiä, yrityskirjanpidon näkökulmasta. Halusin kirjoittaa yrityskirjanpidon näkökulmasta, koska tradenomi koulutuksessa otetaan esiin ainoastaan eri yritysmuotojen kirjanpito. Tutkimusmenetelmäksi valitsin haastattelun. Haastattelin kirjanpitäjää, jolla on monen vuoden työkokemus sekä maatalous- että yrityskirjanpidosta. Saadakseni hieman toisenlaisen näkökulman opinnäytetyöni aiheesta valitsin haastateltavaksi henkilön, jolla on agronomin tutkinto.This thesis is an introduction to agricultural bookkeeping intended for bachelors of Business Administration who work with agricultural bookkeeping. The purpose of the work is to help persons with a background and training in company bookkeeping to understand agricultural bookkeeping. Agricultural bookkeeping is presented thoroughly, forestry bookkeeping is dealt with in less detail. There is also a chapter which explains company bookkeeping briefly. This work also points out differences and similarities between agricultural and company bookkeeping, from the company bookkeeping point of view. This approach was chosen because the introduction is specially written for bachelors of Business Administration and their education contains only the bookkeeping for different types of companies. As the method of investigation I have chosen an interview with a bookkeeper, who has been working with both agricultural and company bookkeeping for many years

    American and English procedures for the determination and expression of sovereign will

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    Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University This item was digitized by the Internet Archive
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