226 research outputs found

    Influence of Carboxypeptidases on Cocoa Specific Aroma Precursors and Methylpyrazines in Under-Fermented Cocoa Beans

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    A study on the influence of two carboxypeptidases on cocoa specific aroma precursors and methylpyrazines in under..fermented cocoa beans was carried out. Cocoa beans, which were fermented for three days using wooden box were used as samples. The beans were powdered and then incubated at 45°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Protein content, carboxypeptidase activity, cocoa storage protein, free amino acids, peptide profiles and methylpyrazines concentration were determined. Commercial carboxypeptidase B from porcine and carboxypeptidase Y from baker's yeast were used separately for digestion of cocoa storage protein. Protein content decreased during 3 days of fermentation. Three major bands of cocoa storage protein were found using SDS-P AGE. Carboxypeptidase activity increased after one day, but later decreased between two and three days of fermentation. During three days of fermentation, free amino acids increased and about 50 to 62% of hydrophobic free amino acids were produced. Hydrophobic peptides in unfermented cocoa beans were considerably higher as compared to underfermented beans. However, their peptide profiles were very similar for all samples taken at one to three days of fermentation. The concentration of 2,5- dimethyl-, 2,3,5-trimethyl- and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazines were low after one day and increased during two to three days of fermentation. The degradation of cocoa storage protein from the samples treated with 5 % and 10% of carboxypeptidase B and carboxypeptidase Y revealed similar peptide bands with those of the untreated samples. Hydrophobic free amino acids (alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine,phenylalanine and tyrosine) were predominantly produced in the samples treated with 5% and 10% of carboxypeptidase B and Y. The pep tides profile were very similar with those of the control (well fermented beans). Digestion with carboxypeptidase B and carboxypeptidase Y did not have a significant effect on the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-, 2,3,5-trimethyl- and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazines. Concentrations of acidic amino acid (aspartic, glutamic), hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, valine and isoleucine), others (proline, methionine, cysteine, tryptophane, lysine, serine, glysine, histidine,arginine and threonine) and total of amino acids in the untreated adn treated samples with 5% and 10% of carboxypeptidase B and carboxypeptidase Y were significant decreased by roasting at 150°C for 15 min. The proportions of peptides also decreased upon roasting. Peptide profiles revealed very similar chromatogram with those of untreated sample. The concentration of 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine was significantly higher for samples treated with carboxypeptidase B compared to 2,5-dimethyl- and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine. However, the concentration of 2,3,S-trimethylpyrazine was the highest (1727.86 µg 100g-1) in the sample with carboxypeptidase B that had been incubated for 24 h. Cocoa liquor made from under-fermented cocoa beans treated with carboxypeptidase B and carboxypeptidase Y were more bitter, astringent, acidic, higher in off-flavour and possessed weaker cocoa flavour compared to the reference (Ghanaian cocoa) sample. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among samples treated with 5% and 10% of carboxypeptidases B and Y; however, there was significant correlation (P<0.05) between methylpyrazines and cocoa flavour attribute and also with hydrophobic free amino acids in the samples treated with both enzymes. The overall findings indicate that carboxypeptidase B from porcine pancreas was efficient for the formation of cocoa specific aroma precursors

    PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AMPAS KECAP DAN KONSENTRASI WORTEL (Daucus carota) TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK NUGGET NABATI

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    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi konsentrasi ampas kecap dan konsentrasi wortel terhadap karakteristik nugget nabati. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah pola faktorial (3x3) dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 3 kali ulangan. Rancangan perlakuan yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu konsentrasi ampas kecap (H) yang terdiri dari 3 taraf yaitu h1 (45%), h2 (50%), dan h3 (55%) dan konsentrasi wortel (W) yang terdiri dari 3 taraf yaitu w1 (5%), w2 (10%), dan w3 (15%). Respon organoleptik meliputi kenampakan, tekstur, aroma, dan rasa. Respon kimia meliputi kadar protein, kadar serat kasar, kadar air, dan kadar lemak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Konsentrasi ampas kecap (H) berpengaruh terhadap kadar air, protein, serat kasar, lemak, kenampakan, aroma, rasa, dan tekstur. Konsentrasi wortel (W) berpengaruh terhadap serat kasar, kadar air, tekstur, rasa dan kenampakan tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap protein, lemak, dan aroma. Interaksi konsentrasi ampas kecap (H) dan konsentrasi wortel (W) berpengaruh terhadap kenampakan dan rasa tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar air, protein, serat kasar, lemak, aroma, dan tekstur

    PENGARUH JENIS PELARUT DAN JENIS TEH (Camellia sinensis L) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN SENYAWA QUERCETIN PADA EKSTRAK TEH

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    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi jumlah kandungan senyawa quercetin pada berbagai jenis teh dengan penggunaan berbagai jenis pelarut serta untuk menentukan jenis pelarut dan jenis teh yang terpilih atas dasar jumlah kandungan senyawa quercetin tertinggi pada ekstrak the. Memberikan informasi kepada pemerintah, peneliti, dan masyarakat mengenai kandungan quercetin pada jenis teh (teh putih, dan teh oolong) yang diharapkan dapat berperan sebagai bahan antioksidan. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah pola faktorial 3x2 dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 4 kali ulangan. Rancangan perlakuan dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 faktor yaitu jenis pelarut (faktor A) dengan 3 taraf yaitu etanol, aquades dan asam asetat glacial. Jenis teh (faktor B) dengan 2 taraf yaitu teh putih dan teh oolong sehingga diperoleh 24 satuan percobaan. Variabel respon yang dianalisis yaitu total fenolik, aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH, total flavonoid dan kandungan quercetin dengan metode High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produk terpilih yaitu sampel a1b1 (pelarut etanol dengan teh putih) jika dilihat dari kandungan total fenolik sebesar 4,5538 mg GAE/g ekstrak teh, aktivitas antioksidan sebesar 4,2410 ppm, dan total flavonoid sebesar 4,8568 mg QE/g ekstrak teh. Namun, jika dilihat dari parameter kandungan quercetin tertinggi maka sampel a2b2 (pelarut aquadest dengan teh oolong) yang dipilih dengan kandungan quercetin sebesar 1,5620 ppm. Kata kunci : Etanol, aquades, asam asetat glacial, teh putih, teh oolong, total fenolik, DPPH, total flavonoid, Querceti

    COMPARISON OF SOY MILK POWDER WITH SKIM MILK AND STEVIA WITH SUCROSE TOWARDS THE CHARACTERISTIC OF CHOCOLATE

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    The aim of this research was to determine the proper comparison between soy milk powder with skim milk and stevia with sucrose in the manufacture of Chocolate Candy. The experimental design used in this research was factorial pattern (3x3) in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The design of the treatment carried out in this research consisted of two factors: the ratio of soy milk powder with skim milk (A), which consists of three levels which are a1 = 1:0 (soy milk powder : skim milk), a2 = 1:1 (soy milk powder : skim milk), and a3 = 0:1 (soy milk powder: skim milk) and a comparison of stevia with sucrose (B), which consists of three levels which are b1 = 1:0 (stevia : sucrose), b2 = 1:1 (stevia : sucrose), and b3 = 0:1 (stevia : sucrose). Therefore it has been obtained 27 experimental replication unit. Organoleptic response variables include taste, flavor, texture and aftertaste. Chemical analysis conducted was fat content, protein content, carbohydrate content, and moisture content as well as physical analysis which was conducted towards the toughness of the Chocolate Candy. The results indicated that the best Chocolate Candy product which is with treatment a3b2 (comparison of soy milk with skim milk 0:1, and the comparison of stevia with sucrose 1:1) based on panelist responses on organoleptic test by 11.05% fat content, 13.44% protein content, 25.28% carbohydrate content, water content of 1.17% and has a toughness test value of 1.23 mm/sec/100gram

    ANALISIS KADAR FENOLIK, FLAVONOID DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK METANOL SERBUK HARENDONG (Melastoma affine D. Don), SINTRONG (Crassocephalum crepidiodes) DAN JONGE (Emilia sonchifolia

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    Harendong, Sintrong and Jonge are weeds that are usually found in the Research Institute For Tea and Cinchona Gambung. Gambung society is accustomed to consuming Harendong, Sintrong and Jonge leaves as lalab. The purpose of this research was to determine and study phenolic, flavonoid, and antioxidant activity found in methanol extracts of Harendong, Sintong and Jonge powders. Provide information to researchers and the public about phenolic levels, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Harendong, Sintrong and Jonge powders. The research method used in this research was the Folilin-Ciocalteu method for the analysis of phenolic value with gallic acid standards, analysis of flavonoid value with quercetin standard by spectrophotometer method and antioxidant activity by the method 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH). The results showed that concentrations of phenolic concentrated extracts of methanol from Harendong, Sintrong and Jonge powder were 227.08 mg GAE / g, 48.10 mg GAE / g and 16.92 mg GAE / g, severally. The value of flavonoid compounds of methanol extract of Harendong, Sintrong and Jonge powder were severally 13.35 mg RE / g, 7.40 mg RE / g and 11.12 mg RE / g. The higher value of phenolic compounds and flavonoid compounds, the higher the potential for antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity is expressed in IC50 values. IC50 values of methanol extract of Harendong, Sintrong and Jonge powder were 44.94 ppm, 50 ppm and 125.66 ppm respectively. The smaller the IC50 value, the higher the antioxidant activity. From the correlation coefficient value, it was found that 65.75% of antioxidant activity was influenced by phenolic compounds and 8.77% of flavonoid compounds. Keywords: Methanol, Harendong, Sintrong, Jonge, phenolic compounds, flavonoid compounds, antioxidant activity, DPP

    IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA AKTIF ALKALOID, CATECHIN & GENISTEIN PADA PRODUK DARK CHOCOLATE YANG DITAMBAHKAN GREEN TEA MATCHA SERTA PERBANDINGAN SOY POWDER & MILK POWDER

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    Cacao is one of commodities that are quite often found in Indonesia. Almost every circle likes cacao’s processed product such as chocolate bar due to its delicious taste. But its role in fulfilling consumer’s nutrition needs are not fulfilled yet as not many manufacturer that care, and not many people knows the benefit of consuming chocolate. Therefore, in this research, the active compound that contained in dark chocolate will furthermore identified, that diversified by adding beneficial active compound such as catechin from matcha green tea as a polyphenol and genistein fromsoy powder as an antioxidant. From this research, will be expected to benefit for Indonesia in cocoa utilization. Randomized Complete Block Design is used as data analysis, by using 1 : 0, 1 : 1 and 0 : 1 proportion to soy powder with milk powder as factors, with 6 %, 8% and 10 % matcha green tea concentration. Response on this research is organoleptic, which is ranking test with texture, taste, flavor, andafter taste attribute then continued with identifying alkaloid active compound, catechin and genistein in dark chocolate product. The result of stage - 1 research is getting selected sample from organoleptic test ranking, where the best texture attribute sample is 165 (proportion insoy powder with milk powder by 1 : 0, green tea concentration by 6%), best taste attribute sample is 683 (proportion insoy powder with milk powder by 1 : 1), best flavor attribute sample is 372 (proportion insoy powder with milk powder by 1 : 0, green tea concentration by 10%) and bestafter taste attribute sample is 372 (proportion insoy powder with milk powder by 1 : 0, green tea concentration by 10%). Hereafter, stage - 2 research is identifying active compound for total value of alkaloid sample with highest value of sample number 683 as much as 4,72 %. Total value of flavonoid sample with highest flavonoid value is sample number 683 as much as 1.21%, the identification result using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) got the best sample for catechin identification is sample 683 with catechin content 0,81 % and for genistein identification is sample 372 with genistein content 0,20 %. Keyword : Alkaloid, Catechin, Dark chololate, Flavonoid,Genistei
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