51 research outputs found

### Reproducibility, accuracy and performance of the Feltor code and library on parallel computer architectures

Feltor is a modular and free scientific software package. It allows
developing platform independent code that runs on a variety of parallel
computer architectures ranging from laptop CPUs to multi-GPU distributed memory
systems. Feltor consists of both a numerical library and a collection of
application codes built on top of the library. Its main target are two- and
three-dimensional drift- and gyro-fluid simulations with discontinuous Galerkin
methods as the main numerical discretization technique. We observe that
numerical simulations of a recently developed gyro-fluid model produce
non-deterministic results in parallel computations. First, we show how we
restore accuracy and bitwise reproducibility algorithmically and
programmatically. In particular, we adopt an implementation of the exactly
rounded dot product based on long accumulators, which avoids accuracy losses
especially in parallel applications. However, reproducibility and accuracy
alone fail to indicate correct simulation behaviour. In fact, in the physical
model slightly different initial conditions lead to vastly different end
states. This behaviour translates to its numerical representation. Pointwise
convergence, even in principle, becomes impossible for long simulation times.
In a second part, we explore important performance tuning considerations. We
identify latency and memory bandwidth as the main performance indicators of our
routines. Based on these, we propose a parallel performance model that predicts
the execution time of algorithms implemented in Feltor and test our model on a
selection of parallel hardware architectures. We are able to predict the
execution time with a relative error of less than 25% for problem sizes between
0.1 and 1000 MB. Finally, we find that the product of latency and bandwidth
gives a minimum array size per compute node to achieve a scaling efficiency
above 50% (both strong and weak)

### Reproducibility of parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient in hybrid programming environments

[EN] The Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method is often employed for the solution of linear systems of equations arising in numerical simulations of physical phenomena. While being widely used, the solver is also known for its lack of accuracy while computing the residual. In this article, we propose two algorithmic solutions that originate from the ExBLAS project to enhance the accuracy of the solver as well as to ensure its reproducibility in a hybrid MPI + OpenMP tasks programming environment. One is based on ExBLAS and preserves every bit of information until the final rounding, while the other relies upon floating-point expansions and, hence, expands the intermediate precision. Instead of converting the entire solver into its ExBLAS-related implementation, we identify those parts that violate reproducibility/non-associativity, secure them, and combine this with the sequential executions. These algorithmic strategies are reinforced with programmability suggestions to assure deterministic executions. Finally, we verify these approaches on two modern HPC systems: both versions deliver reproducible number of iterations, residuals, direct errors, and vector-solutions for the overhead of less than 37.7% on 768 cores.The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This research was partially supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research, innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement via the Robust project No. 842528 as well as the Project HPC-EUROPA3 (INFRAIA-2016-1-730897), with the support of the H2020 EC RIA Programme; in particular, the author gratefully acknowledges the support of Vicenc comma Beltran and the computer resources and technical support provided by BSC. The researchers from Universitat Jaume I (UJI) and Universitat Polit ' ecnica de Valencia (UPV) were supported by MINECO project TIN2017-82972-R. Maria Barreda was also supported by the POSDOC-A/2017/11 project from the Universitat Jaume I.Iakymchuk, R.; Barreda Vayá, M.; Graillat, S.; Aliaga, JI.; Quintana Ortí, ES. (2020). Reproducibility of parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient in hybrid programming environments. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications. 34(5):502-518. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094342020932650S502518345Aliaga, J. I., Barreda, M., Flegar, G., Bollhöfer, M., & Quintana-Ortí, E. S. (2017). Communication in task-parallel ILU-preconditioned CG solvers using MPI + OmpSs. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 29(21), e4280. doi:10.1002/cpe.4280Bailey, D. H. (2013). High-precision computation: Applications and challenges [Keynote I]. 2013 IEEE 21st Symposium on Computer Arithmetic. doi:10.1109/arith.2013.39Barrett, R., Berry, M., Chan, T. F., Demmel, J., Donato, J., Dongarra, J., … van der Vorst, H. (1994). Templates for the Solution of Linear Systems: Building Blocks for Iterative Methods. doi:10.1137/1.9781611971538Burgess, N., Goodyer, C., Hinds, C. N., & Lutz, D. R. (2019). High-Precision Anchored Accumulators for Reproducible Floating-Point Summation. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 68(7), 967-978. doi:10.1109/tc.2018.2855729Carson, E., & Higham, N. J. (2018). Accelerating the Solution of Linear Systems by Iterative Refinement in Three Precisions. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 40(2), A817-A847. doi:10.1137/17m1140819Collange, S., Defour, D., Graillat, S., & Iakymchuk, R. (2015). Numerical reproducibility for the parallel reduction on multi- and many-core architectures. Parallel Computing, 49, 83-97. doi:10.1016/j.parco.2015.09.001Dekker, T. J. (1971). A floating-point technique for extending the available precision. Numerische Mathematik, 18(3), 224-242. doi:10.1007/bf01397083Demmel, J., & Hong Diep Nguyen. (2013). Fast Reproducible Floating-Point Summation. 2013 IEEE 21st Symposium on Computer Arithmetic. doi:10.1109/arith.2013.9Demmel, J., & Nguyen, H. D. (2015). Parallel Reproducible Summation. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 64(7), 2060-2070. doi:10.1109/tc.2014.2345391Dongarra, J. J., Du Croz, J., Hammarling, S., & Duff, I. S. (1990). A set of level 3 basic linear algebra subprograms. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 16(1), 1-17. doi:10.1145/77626.79170Fousse, L., Hanrot, G., Lefèvre, V., Pélissier, P., & Zimmermann, P. (2007). MPFR. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 33(2), 13. doi:10.1145/1236463.1236468Hida, Y., Li, X. S., & Bailey, D. H. (s. f.). Algorithms for quad-double precision floating point arithmetic. Proceedings 15th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic. ARITH-15 2001. doi:10.1109/arith.2001.930115Hunold, S., & Carpen-Amarie, A. (2016). Reproducible MPI Benchmarking is Still Not as Easy as You Think. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 27(12), 3617-3630. doi:10.1109/tpds.2016.2539167IEEE Computer Society (2008) IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic. Piscataway: IEEE Standard, pp. 754–2008.Kulisch, U., & Snyder, V. (2010). The exact dot product as basic tool for long interval arithmetic. Computing, 91(3), 307-313. doi:10.1007/s00607-010-0127-7Kulisch, U. (2013). Computer Arithmetic and Validity. doi:10.1515/9783110301793Lawson, C. L., Hanson, R. J., Kincaid, D. R., & Krogh, F. T. (1979). Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms for Fortran Usage. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 5(3), 308-323. doi:10.1145/355841.355847Lutz, D. R., & Hinds, C. N. (2017). High-Precision Anchored Accumulators for Reproducible Floating-Point Summation. 2017 IEEE 24th Symposium on Computer Arithmetic (ARITH). doi:10.1109/arith.2017.20Mukunoki, D., Ogita, T., & Ozaki, K. (2020). Reproducible BLAS Routines with Tunable Accuracy Using Ozaki Scheme for Many-Core Architectures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 516-527. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-43229-4_44Nguyen, H. D., & Demmel, J. (2015). Reproducible Tall-Skinny QR. 2015 IEEE 22nd Symposium on Computer Arithmetic. doi:10.1109/arith.2015.28Ogita, T., Rump, S. M., & Oishi, S. (2005). Accurate Sum and Dot Product. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 26(6), 1955-1988. doi:10.1137/030601818Ozaki, K., Ogita, T., Oishi, S., & Rump, S. M. (2011). Error-free transformations of matrix multiplication by using fast routines of matrix multiplication and its applications. Numerical Algorithms, 59(1), 95-118. doi:10.1007/s11075-011-9478-1Priest, D. M. (s. f.). Algorithms for arbitrary precision floating point arithmetic. [1991] Proceedings 10th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic. doi:10.1109/arith.1991.145549Rump, S. M., Ogita, T., & Oishi, S. (2008). Accurate Floating-Point Summation Part I: Faithful Rounding. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 31(1), 189-224. doi:10.1137/050645671Rump, S. M., Ogita, T., & Oishi, S. (2009). Accurate Floating-Point Summation Part II: Sign, K-Fold Faithful and Rounding to Nearest. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 31(2), 1269-1302. doi:10.1137/07068816xRump, S. M., Ogita, T., & Oishi, S. (2010). Fast high precision summation. Nonlinear Theory and Its Applications, IEICE, 1(1), 2-24. doi:10.1587/nolta.1.2Saad, Y. (2003). Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Systems. doi:10.1137/1.9780898718003Wiesenberger, M., Einkemmer, L., Held, M., Gutierrez-Milla, A., Sáez, X., & Iakymchuk, R. (2019). Reproducibility, accuracy and performance of the Feltor code and library on parallel computer architectures. Computer Physics Communications, 238, 145-156. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2018.12.00

### Hierarchical approach for deriving a reproducible unblocked LU factorization

[EN] We propose a reproducible variant of the unblocked LU factorization for graphics processor units (GPUs). For this purpose, we build upon Level-1/2 BLAS kernels that deliver correctly-rounded and reproducible results for the dot (inner) product, vector scaling, and the matrix-vector product. In addition, we draw a strategy to enhance the accuracy of the triangular solve via iterative refinement. Following a bottom-up approach, we finally construct a reproducible unblocked implementation of the LU factorization for GPUs, which accommodates partial pivoting for stability and can be eventually integrated in a high performance and stable algorithm for the (blocked) LU factorization.The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The simulations were performed on resources provided by the Swed-ish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at PDC Centre for High Performance Computing (PDC-HPC). This work was also granted access to the HPC resources of The Institute for Scientific Computing and Simulation financed by Region Ile-de-France and the project Equip@Meso (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01) overseen by the French National Agency for Research (ANR) as part of the Investissements d Avenir pro-gram. This work was also partly supported by the FastRelax (ANR-14-CE25-0018-01) project of ANR.Iakymchuk, R.; Graillat, S.; Defour, D.; Quintana-Orti, ES. (2019). Hierarchical approach for deriving a reproducible unblocked LU factorization. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications. 33(5):791-803. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094342019832968S791803335Arteaga, A., Fuhrer, O., & Hoefler, T. (2014). Designing Bit-Reproducible Portable High-Performance Applications. 2014 IEEE 28th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium. doi:10.1109/ipdps.2014.127Bientinesi, P., Quintana-Ortí, E. S., & Geijn, R. A. van de. (2005). Representing linear algebra algorithms in code: the FLAME application program interfaces. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 31(1), 27-59. doi:10.1145/1055531.1055533Chohra, C., Langlois, P., & Parello, D. (2016). Efficiency of Reproducible Level 1 BLAS. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 99-108. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31769-4_8Collange, S., Defour, D., Graillat, S., & Iakymchuk, R. (2015). Numerical reproducibility for the parallel reduction on multi- and many-core architectures. Parallel Computing, 49, 83-97. doi:10.1016/j.parco.2015.09.001Demmel, J., & Hong Diep Nguyen. (2013). Fast Reproducible Floating-Point Summation. 2013 IEEE 21st Symposium on Computer Arithmetic. doi:10.1109/arith.2013.9Demmel, J., & Nguyen, H. D. (2015). Parallel Reproducible Summation. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 64(7), 2060-2070. doi:10.1109/tc.2014.2345391Dongarra, J. J., Du Croz, J., Hammarling, S., & Duff, I. S. (1990). A set of level 3 basic linear algebra subprograms. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 16(1), 1-17. doi:10.1145/77626.79170Dongarra, J., Hittinger, J., Bell, J., Chacon, L., Falgout, R., Heroux, M., … Wild, S. (2014). Applied Mathematics Research for Exascale Computing. doi:10.2172/1149042Fousse, L., Hanrot, G., Lefèvre, V., Pélissier, P., & Zimmermann, P. (2007). MPFR. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 33(2), 13. doi:10.1145/1236463.1236468Haidar, A., Dong, T., Luszczek, P., Tomov, S., & Dongarra, J. (2015). Batched matrix computations on hardware accelerators based on GPUs. The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 29(2), 193-208. doi:10.1177/1094342014567546Hida, Y., Li, X. S., & Bailey, D. H. (s. f.). Algorithms for quad-double precision floating point arithmetic. Proceedings 15th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic. ARITH-15 2001. doi:10.1109/arith.2001.930115Higham, N. J. (2002). Accuracy and Stability of Numerical Algorithms. doi:10.1137/1.9780898718027Iakymchuk, R., Defour, D., Collange, S., & Graillat, S. (2015). Reproducible Triangular Solvers for High-Performance Computing. 2015 12th International Conference on Information Technology - New Generations. doi:10.1109/itng.2015.63Iakymchuk, R., Defour, D., Collange, S., & Graillat, S. (2016). Reproducible and Accurate Matrix Multiplication. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 126-137. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31769-4_11Kulisch, U., & Snyder, V. (2010). The exact dot product as basic tool for long interval arithmetic. Computing, 91(3), 307-313. doi:10.1007/s00607-010-0127-7Li, X. S., Demmel, J. W., Bailey, D. H., Henry, G., Hida, Y., Iskandar, J., … Yoo, D. J. (2002). Design, implementation and testing of extended and mixed precision BLAS. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 28(2), 152-205. doi:10.1145/567806.567808Muller, J.-M., Brisebarre, N., de Dinechin, F., Jeannerod, C.-P., Lefèvre, V., Melquiond, G., … Torres, S. (2010). Handbook of Floating-Point Arithmetic. doi:10.1007/978-0-8176-4705-6Ogita, T., Rump, S. M., & Oishi, S. (2005). Accurate Sum and Dot Product. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 26(6), 1955-1988. doi:10.1137/030601818Ortega, J. . (1988). The ijk forms of factorization methods I. Vector computers. Parallel Computing, 7(2), 135-147. doi:10.1016/0167-8191(88)90035-xRump, S. M. (2009). Ultimately Fast Accurate Summation. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 31(5), 3466-3502. doi:10.1137/080738490Skeel, R. D. (1979). Scaling for Numerical Stability in Gaussian Elimination. Journal of the ACM, 26(3), 494-526. doi:10.1145/322139.322148Zhu, Y.-K., & Hayes, W. B. (2010). Algorithm 908. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 37(3), 1-13. doi:10.1145/1824801.182481

### Reproducibility Strategies for Parallel Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient

The Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method is often used in numerical simulations. While being widely used, the solver is also known for its lack of accuracy while computing the residual. In this article, we aim at a twofold goal: enhance the accuracy of the solver but also ensure its reproducibility in a message-passing implementation. We design and employ various strategies starting from the ExBLAS approach (through preserving every bit of information until final rounding) to its more lightweight performance-oriented variant (through expanding the intermediate precision). These algorithmic strategies are reinforced with programmability suggestions to assure deterministic executions. Finally, we verify these strategies on modern HPC systems: both versions deliver reproducible number of iterations, residuals, direct errors, and vector-solutions for the overhead of only 29 % (ExBLAS) and 4 % (lightweight) on 768 processes

### Reproducibility strategies for parallel preconditioned Conjugate Gradient

[EN] The Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient method is often used in numerical simulations. While being widely used, the solver is also known for its lack of accuracy while computing the residual. In this article, we aim at a twofold goal: enhance the accuracy of the solver but also ensure its reproducibility in a message-passing implementation. We design and employ various strategies starting from the ExBLAS approach (through preserving every bit of information until final rounding) to its more lightweight performance-oriented variant (through expanding the intermediate precision). These algorithmic strategies are reinforced with programmability suggestions to assure deterministic executions. Finally, we verify these strategies on modern HPC systems: both versions deliver reproducible number of iterations, residuals, direct errors, and vector-solutions for the overhead of only 29% (ExBLAS) and 4% (lightweight) on 768 processes.To begin with, we would like to thank the reviewers for their thorough reading of the article as well as their valuable comments and suggestions. This research was partially supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research, innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement via the Robust project No. 842528 as well as the Project HPC-EUROPA3 (INFRAIA-2016-1-730897), with the support of the H2020 EC RIA Programme; in particular, the author gratefully acknowledges the support of Vicenc Beltran and the computer resources and technical support provided by BSC. The researchers from Universitat Jaume I (UJI) and Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) were supported by MINECO, Spain project TIN2017-82972-R. Maria Barreda was also supported by the POSDOC-A/2017/11 project from the Universitat Jaume I, Spain.Iakymchuk, R.; Barreda, M.; Wiesenberger, M.; Aliaga, JI.; Quintana Ortí, ES. (2020). Reproducibility strategies for parallel preconditioned Conjugate Gradient. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics. 371:1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2019.112697S113371Lawson, C. L., Hanson, R. J., Kincaid, D. R., & Krogh, F. T. (1979). Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms for Fortran Usage. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 5(3), 308-323. doi:10.1145/355841.355847Dongarra, J. J., Du Croz, J., Hammarling, S., & Duff, I. S. (1990). A set of level 3 basic linear algebra subprograms. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 16(1), 1-17. doi:10.1145/77626.79170Demmel, J., & Nguyen, H. D. (2015). Parallel Reproducible Summation. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 64(7), 2060-2070. doi:10.1109/tc.2014.2345391Iakymchuk, R., Graillat, S., Defour, D., & Quintana-Ortí, E. S. (2019). Hierarchical approach for deriving a reproducible unblocked LU factorization. The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, 33(5), 791-803. doi:10.1177/1094342019832968Iakymchuk, R., Defour, D., Collange, S., & Graillat, S. (2016). Reproducible and Accurate Matrix Multiplication. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 126-137. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-31769-4_11Rump, S. M., Ogita, T., & Oishi, S. (2009). Accurate Floating-Point Summation Part II: Sign, K-Fold Faithful and Rounding to Nearest. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 31(2), 1269-1302. doi:10.1137/07068816xBurgess, N., Goodyer, C., Hinds, C. N., & Lutz, D. R. (2019). High-Precision Anchored Accumulators for Reproducible Floating-Point Summation. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 68(7), 967-978. doi:10.1109/tc.2018.2855729D. Mukunoki, T. Ogita, K. Ozaki, Accurate and reproducible BLAS routines with Ozaki scheme for many-core architectures, in: Proc. International Conference on Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics, PPAM2019, 2019, accepted.Ogita, T., Rump, S. M., & Oishi, S. (2005). Accurate Sum and Dot Product. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 26(6), 1955-1988. doi:10.1137/030601818Kulisch, U., & Snyder, V. (2010). The exact dot product as basic tool for long interval arithmetic. Computing, 91(3), 307-313. doi:10.1007/s00607-010-0127-7Boldo, S., & Melquiond, G. (2008). Emulation of a FMA and Correctly Rounded Sums: Proved Algorithms Using Rounding to Odd. IEEE Transactions on Computers, 57(4), 462-471. doi:10.1109/tc.2007.70819Wiesenberger, M., Einkemmer, L., Held, M., Gutierrez-Milla, A., Sáez, X., & Iakymchuk, R. (2019). Reproducibility, accuracy and performance of the Feltor code and library on parallel computer architectures. Computer Physics Communications, 238, 145-156. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2018.12.006Fousse, L., Hanrot, G., Lefèvre, V., Pélissier, P., & Zimmermann, P. (2007). MPFR. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 33(2), 13. doi:10.1145/1236463.1236468J. Demmel, H.D. Nguyen, Fast reproducible floating-point summation, in: Proceedings of ARITH-21, 2013, pp. 163–172.Ozaki, K., Ogita, T., Oishi, S., & Rump, S. M. (2011). Error-free transformations of matrix multiplication by using fast routines of matrix multiplication and its applications. Numerical Algorithms, 59(1), 95-118. doi:10.1007/s11075-011-9478-1Carson, E., & Higham, N. J. (2018). Accelerating the Solution of Linear Systems by Iterative Refinement in Three Precisions. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 40(2), A817-A847. doi:10.1137/17m114081

### A Reproducible Accurate Summation Algorithm for High-Performance Computing

International audienceFloating-point (FP) addition is non-associative and parallel reduction involving this operation is a serious issue as noted in the DARPA Exascale Report [1]. Such large summations typically appear within fundamental numerical blocks such as dot products or numerical integrations. Hence, the result may vary from one parallel machine to another or even from one run to another. These discrepancies worsen on heterogeneous architectures – such as clusters with GPUs or Intel Xeon Phi processors – which combine programming environments that may obey various floating-point models and offer different intermediate precision or different operators [2,3]. Such non-determinism of floating-point calculations in parallel programs causes validation and debugging issues, and may lead to deadlocks [4]. The increasing power of current computers enables one to solve more and more complex problems. That, consequently, leads to a higher number of floating-point operations to be performed; each of them potentially causing a round-off error. Because of the round-off error propagation, some problems must be solved with a wider floating-point format. Two approaches exist to perform floating-point addition without incurring round-off errors. The first approach aims at computing the error that is occurred during rounding using FP expansions, which are based on an error-free transformation. FP expansions represent the result as an unevaluated sum of a fixed number of FP numbers, whose components are ordered in magnitude with minimal overlap to cover a wide range of exponents. FP expansions of sizes 2 and 4 are presented in [5] and [6], accordingly. The main advantage of this solution is that the expansion can stay in registers during the computations. But, the accuracy is insufficient for the summation of numerous FP numbers or sums with a huge dynamic range. Moreover, their complexity grows linearly with the size of the expansion. An alternative approach to expansions exploits the finite range of representable floating-point numbers by storing every bit in a very long vector of bits (accumulator). The length of the accumulator is chosen such that every bit of information of the input format can be represented; this covers the range from the minimum representable floating-point value to the maximum value, independently of the sign. For instance, Kulisch [7] proposed to utilize an accumulator of 4288 bits to handle the accumulation of products of 64-bit IEEE floating-point values. The Kulisch accumulator is a solution to produce the exact result of a very large amount of floating-point numbers of arbitrary magnitude. However, for a long period this approach was considered impractical as it induces a very large memory overhead. Furthermore, without dedicated hardware support, its performance is limited by indirect memory accesses that make vectorization challenging. We aim at addressing both issues of accuracy and reproducibility in the context of summation. We advocate to compute the correctly-rounded result of the exact sum. Besides offering strict reproducibility through an unambiguous definition of the expected result, our approach guarantees that the result ha

### Reproducible Triangular Solvers for High-Performance Computing

On modern parallel architectures, floating-point computations may become non-deterministic and, therefore, non-reproducible mainly due to non-associativity of floating-point operations. We propose an algorithm to solve dense triangular systems by leveraging the standard parallel triangular solver and our, recently introduced, multi-level exact summation approach. Finally, we present implementations of the proposed fast repro-ducible triangular solver and results on recent NVIDIA GPUs

### A taxonomy of task-based parallel programming technologies for high-performance computing

Task-based programming models for shared memory -- such as Cilk Plus and OpenMP 3 -- are well established and documented. However, with the increase in parallel, many-core and heterogeneous systems, a number of research-driven projects have developed more diversified task-based support, employing various programming and runtime features. Unfortunately, despite the fact that dozens of different task-based systems exist today and are actively used for parallel and high-performance computing (HPC), no comprehensive overview or classification of task-based technologies for HPC exists.
In this paper, we provide an initial task-focused taxonomy for HPC technologies, which covers both programming interfaces and runtime mechanisms. We demonstrate the usefulness of our taxonomy by classifying state-of-the-art task-based environments in use today

### White Paper from Workshop on Large-scale Parallel Numerical Computing Technology (LSPANC 2020): HPC and Computer Arithmetic toward Minimal-Precision Computing

In numerical computations, precision of floating-point computations is a key
factor to determine the performance (speed and energy-efficiency) as well as
the reliability (accuracy and reproducibility). However, precision generally
plays a contrary role for both. Therefore, the ultimate concept for maximizing
both at the same time is the minimal-precision computing through
precision-tuning, which adjusts the optimal precision for each operation and
data. Several studies have been already conducted for it so far (e.g.
Precimoniuos and Verrou), but the scope of those studies is limited to the
precision-tuning alone. Hence, we aim to propose a broader concept of the
minimal-precision computing system with precision-tuning, involving both
hardware and software stack.
In 2019, we have started the Minimal-Precision Computing project to propose a
more broad concept of the minimal-precision computing system with
precision-tuning, involving both hardware and software stack. Specifically, our
system combines (1) a precision-tuning method based on Discrete Stochastic
Arithmetic (DSA), (2) arbitrary-precision arithmetic libraries, (3) fast and
accurate numerical libraries, and (4) Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with
High-Level Synthesis (HLS).
In this white paper, we aim to provide an overview of various technologies
related to minimal- and mixed-precision, to outline the future direction of the
project, as well as to discuss current challenges together with our project
members and guest speakers at the LSPANC 2020 workshop;
https://www.r-ccs.riken.jp/labs/lpnctrt/lspanc2020jan/

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