155 research outputs found

    The Necessity of Mizoguchi Setting Fire to Kinkaku-ji in Yukio Mishima's "The Temple of the Golden Pavilion" from the Perspective of Feticism

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    Yukio Mishima's literary work, "Kinkaku-ji," delves into the portrayal of a young man ensnared by imaginary fetishism. Mizoguchi's arson act is profoundly influenced by this deification. The protagonist, Mizoguchi, struggles with the dichotomy between excessive aesthetic idolatry rooted in the imagined Kinkaku-ji and the flawed existence of the real Kinkaku-ji. This essay explores how his internal conflict, shaped by fetishism, weaves complex factors, including deification and alienation, ultimately culminating in his resolve to set Kinkaku-ji ablaze. In summary, this thesis concludes that Mizoguchi imperative for arson lies in his pursuit of establishing the absolute nature of the imagined Kinkaku-ji

    Hydrogenated Borophene Shows Catalytic Activity as Solid Acid

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    Hydrogen boride (HB) or hydrogenated borophene sheets are recently realized two-dimensional materials that are composed of only two light elements, boron and hydrogen. However, their catalytic activity has not been experimentally analyzed. Herein, we report the catalytic activity of HB sheets in ethanol reforming. HB sheets catalyze the conversion of ethanol to ethylene and water above 493 K with high selectivity, independent of the contact time, and with an apparent activation energy of 102.8 ± 5.5 kJ/mol. Hence, we identify that HB sheets act as solid-acid catalysts

    Clinical and experimental phenotype of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus with a HapE splice site mutation: a case report

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    Background: The recent increase in cases of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) infections is a major clinical concern owing to its treatment limitations. Patient-derived ARAf occurs after prolonged azole treatment in patients with aspergillosis and involves various cyp51A point mutations or non-cyp51A mutations. The prognosis of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) with patient-derived ARAf infection remains unclear. In this study, we reported the case of a patient with ARAf due to HapE mutation, as well as the virulence of the isolate.Case presentation: A 37-year-old male was presented with productive cough and low-grade fever. The patient was diagnosed with CPA based on the chronic course, presence of a fungus ball in the upper left lobe on chest computed tomography (CT), positivity for Aspergillus-precipitating antibody and denial of other diseases. The patient underwent left upper lobe and left S6 segment resection surgery because of repeated haemoptysis during voriconazole (VRC) treatment. The patient was postoperatively treated with VRC for 6 months. Since then, the patient was followed up without antifungal treatment but relapsed 4 years later, and VRC treatment was reinitiated. Although an azole-resistant isolate was isolated after VRC treatment, the patient did not show any disease progression in either respiratory symptoms or radiological findings. The ARAf isolated from this patient showed slow growth, decreased biomass and biofilm formation in vitro, and decreased virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model compared with its parental strain. These phenotypes could be caused by the HapE splice site mutation.Conclusions: This is the first to report a case demonstrating the clinical manifestation of a CPA patient infected with ARAf with a HapE splice site mutation, which was consistent with the in vitro and in vivo attenuated virulence of the ARAf isolate. These results imply that not all the ARAf infections in immunocompetent patients require antifungal treatment. Further studies on the virulence of non-cyp51A mutations in ARAf are warranted

    Virulence assessment of six major pathogenic Candida species in the mouse model of invasive candidiasis caused by fungal translocation

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    Gastrointestinal colonization has been considered as the primary source of candidaemia; however, few established mouse models are available that mimic this infection route. We therefore developed a reproducible mouse model of invasive candidiasis initiated by fungal translocation and compared the virulence of six major pathogenic Candida species. The mice were fed a low-protein diet and then inoculated intragastrically with Candida cells. Oral antibiotics and cyclophosphamide were then administered to facilitate colonization and subsequent dissemination of Candida cells. Mice infected with Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis exhibited higher mortality than mice infected with the other four species. Among the less virulent species, stool titres of Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were higher than those of Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii. The fungal burdens of C. parapsilosis and C. krusei in the livers and kidneys were significantly greater than those of C. guilliermondii. Histopathologically, C. albicans demonstrated the highest pathogenicity to invade into gut mucosa and liver tissues causing marked necrosis. Overall, this model allowed analysis of the virulence traits of Candida strains in individual mice including colonization in the gut, penetration into intestinal mucosa, invasion into blood vessels, and the subsequent dissemination leading to lethal infections

    Deep learning models for predicting RNA degradation via dual crowdsourcing

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    Medicines based on messenger RNA (mRNA) hold immense potential, as evidenced by their rapid deployment as COVID-19 vaccines. However, worldwide distribution of mRNA molecules has been limited by their thermostability, which is fundamentally limited by the intrinsic instability of RNA molecules to a chemical degradation reaction called in-line hydrolysis. Predicting the degradation of an RNA molecule is a key task in designing more stable RNA-based therapeutics. Here, we describe a crowdsourced machine learning competition (‘Stanford OpenVaccine’) on Kaggle, involving single-nucleotide resolution measurements on 6,043 diverse 102–130-nucleotide RNA constructs that were themselves solicited through crowdsourcing on the RNA design platform Eterna. The entire experiment was completed in less than 6 months, and 41% of nucleotide-level predictions from the winning model were within experimental error of the ground truth measurement. Furthermore, these models generalized to blindly predicting orthogonal degradation data on much longer mRNA molecules (504–1,588 nucleotides) with improved accuracy compared with previously published models. These results indicate that such models can represent in-line hydrolysis with excellent accuracy, supporting their use for designing stabilized messenger RNAs. The integration of two crowdsourcing platforms, one for dataset creation and another for machine learning, may be fruitful for other urgent problems that demand scientific discovery on rapid timescales