5,369 research outputs found

    Non-monotonic dependence of the rupture force in polymer chains on their lengths

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    We consider the rupture dynamics of a homopolymer chain pulled at one end at a constant loading rate. Our model of the breakable polymer is related to the Rouse chain, with the only difference that the interaction between the monomers is described by the Morse potential instead of the harmonic one, and thus allows for mechanical failure. We show that in the experimentally relevant domain of parameters the dependence of the most probable rupture force on the chain length may be non-monotonic, so that the medium-length chains break easier than the short and the long ones. The qualitative theory of the effect is presented

    From Diffusion to Anomalous Diffusion: A Century after Einstein's Brownian Motion

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    Einstein's explanation of Brownian motion provided one of the cornerstones which underlie the modern approaches to stochastic processes. His approach is based on a random walk picture and is valid for Markovian processes lacking long-term memory. The coarse-grained behavior of such processes is described by the diffusion equation. However, many natural processes do not possess the Markovian property and exhibit to anomalous diffusion. We consider here the case of subdiffusive processes, which are semi-Markovian and correspond to continuous-time random walks in which the waiting time for a step is given by a probability distribution with a diverging mean value. Such a process can be considered as a process subordinated to normal diffusion under operational time which depends on this pathological waiting-time distribution. We derive two different but equivalent forms of kinetic equations, which reduce to know fractional diffusion or Fokker-Planck equations for waiting-time distributions following a power-law. For waiting time distributions which are not pure power laws one or the other form of the kinetic equation is advantageous, depending on whether the process slows down or accelerates in the course of time