76 research outputs found

    Owners Of Korean Conglomerates And Corporate Investment

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    We investigate whether Korean chaebol owner’s personal features affect corporate investment or not, for they have a unique governance system controlled by one powerful owner. With this governance, the impact of personal characteristics on major corporate decisions can be tested more clearly. We used the aggregate financial statement to measure chaebol’s financial performances in a more reasonable way as well. Our study shows a few noticeable results. Aggregate financial performances of chaebols are different from those of individual companies. Owner’s personal features affect corporate decision makings in Korean chaebols. Especially, chaebols under succession process invest less than others, preferring more conservative approaches for succession

    Donor-Site Morbidity Following Minimally Invasive Costal Cartilage Harvest Technique

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    ObjectivesAutologous costal cartilage is a promising alternative for mastoid obliteration. However, donor-site morbidities of the chest wall limit the use of this graft. To address this issue, we have developed a minimally-invasive technique of harvesting costal cartilage and report donor site morbidity associated with the procedure.MethodsDonor site morbidities were evaluated for 151 patients who underwent costal cartilage harvest, canal wall down mastoidectomy, and mastoid obliteration. Pain and cosmetic concern were evaluated via visual analogue scale (VAS). Scars were evaluated via the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS). Postoperative complications were assessed during the follow-up period.ResultsThe mean duration of noticeable pain was 5.3 days post operation. The mean VAS score for pain was 3.0 of 10 on the first day after the operation and gradually declined. At the 6 months post operation, the mean VAS cosmetic score at the costal cartilage harvest site was 0.6 of 10. The mean VSS score was 9.5 out of 10 total, and the mean POSAS score was 23.27 out of 110 total.ConclusionThe minimally-invasive chopped costal cartilage harvest technique resulted in acceptable pain, cosmetic concern, and postoperative complications for most patients. There were no major postoperative complications. Costal cartilage is an acceptable donor for mastoid obliteration in canal wall down mastoidectomy, especially in the context of the extremely low donor site morbidity of the minimally-invasive technique presented in the study

    Flexor Tenorrhaphy Using Absorbable Suture Materials

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    BackgroundNonabsorbable sutures are favorable for repairing flexor tendons. However, absorbable sutures have performed favorably in an animal model.MethodsTwo-strand sutures using the interlocking modified Kessler method with polydioxanone absorbable sutures 4-0 were used to repair completely ruptured flexor tendons in 55 fingers from 41 consecutive patients. The medical records of average 42 follow up weeks were analyzed retrospectively. The data analyzed using the chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test was used for postoperative complications. The results were compared with those of other studies.ResultsAmong the index, middle, ring, and little fingers were injured in 9, 17, 16, and 13 fingers, respectively. The injury levels varied from zone 1 to 5. Of the 55 digits in our study, there were 26 (47%) isolated flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) injuries and 29 (53%) combined FDP and with flexor digitorum superficialis injuries. Pulley repair was also conducted. Concomitant injuries of blood vessels and nerves were found in 17 patients (23 fingers); nerve injuries occurred in 5 patients (10 fingers). Two patients had ruptures (3.6%), and one patient had two adhesions (3.6%). Using the original Strickland criteria, all the patients were assessed to be excellent or good. Also, fibrosis and long-term foreign body tissue reactions such as stitch granuloma were less likely occurred in our study. Compared to the Cullen's report that used nonabsorbable sutures, there was no significant difference in the rupture or adhesion rates.ConclusionsTherefore, this study suggests that appropriate absorbable core sutures can be used safely for flexor tendon repairs

    A Case of Portal Vein Thrombosis by Protein C and S Deficiency Completely Recanalized by Anticoagulation Therapy

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    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare form of venous thrombosis that affects the hepatic portal vein flow, which can lead to portal hypertension. Treatment of PVT includes anticoagulants, thrombolysis, insertion of shunts, bypass surgery, and liver transplantation. Single anticoagulation therapy is not regarded as a curative treatment but can be associated with a reduction in new thrombotic episodes. We experienced a case of acute total occlusion of PVT provoked by protein C and S deficiency syndrome. PVT was completely recanalized with oral anticoagulant therapy following low molecular weight heparin therapy

    A Multicenter, Randomized, Comparative Study to Determine the Appropriate Dose of Lansoprazole for Use in the Diagnostic Test for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

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    Twist-2 Controls Myeloid Lineage Development and Function

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    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in lymphoid and erythroid development; however, little is known about their role in myeloid lineage development. In this study, we identify the bHLH transcription factor Twist-2 as a key negative regulator of myeloid lineage development, as manifested by marked increases in mature myeloid populations of macrophages, neutrophils, and basophils in Twist-2–deficient mice. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that Twist-2 inhibits the proliferation as well as differentiation of granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMP) by interacting with and inhibiting the transcription factors Runx1 and C/EBPα. Moreover, Twist-2 was found to have a contrasting effect on cytokine production: inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) while promoting the regulatory cytokine IL-10 by myeloid cells. The data from further analyses suggest that Twist-2 activates the transcription factor c-Maf, leading to IL-10 expression. In addition, Twist-2 was found to be essential for endotoxin tolerance. Thus, this study reveals the critical role of Twist-2 in regulating the development of myeloid lineages, as well as the function and inflammatory responses of mature myeloid cells

    Reactivity of Metal-Free and Metal-Associated Amyloid-?? with Glycosylated Polyphenols and Their Esterified Derivatives

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    Both amyloid-?? (A??) and transition metal ions are shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer???s disease (AD), though the importance of their interactions remains unclear. Multifunctional molecules, which can target metal-free and metal-bound A?? and modulate their reactivity (e.g., A?? aggregation), have been developed as chemical tools to investigate their function in AD pathology; however, these compounds generally lack specificity or have undesirable chemical and biological properties, reducing their functionality. We have evaluated whether multiple polyphenolic glycosides and their esterified derivatives can serve as specific, multifunctional probes to better understand AD. The ability of these compounds to interact with metal ions and metal-free/-associated A??, and further control both metal-free and metal-induced A?? aggregation was investigated through gel electrophoresis with Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. We also examined the cytotoxicity of the compounds and their ability to mitigate the toxicity induced by both metal-free and metal-bound A??. Of the polyphenols investigated, the natural product (Verbascoside) and its esterified derivative (VPP) regulate the aggregation and cytotoxicity of metal-free and/or metal-associated A?? to different extents. Our studies indicate Verbascoside represents a promising structure for further multifunctional tool development against both metal-free A?? and metal-A??.open0

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Protein GRP94 Is Required for Maintaining Hematopoietic Stem Cell Interactions with the Adult Bone Marrow Niche

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    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis in the adult bone marrow (BM) is regulated by both intrinsic gene expression products and interactions with extrinsic factors in the HSC niche. GRP94, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, has been reported to be essential for the expression of specific integrins and to selectively regulate early T and B lymphopoiesis. In GRP94 deficient BM chimeras, multipotent hematopoietic progenitors persisted and even increased, however, the mechanism is not well understood. Here we employed a conditional knockout (KO) strategy to acutely eliminate GRP94 in the hematopoietic system. We observed an increase in HSCs and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors in the Grp94 KO BM, correlating with an increased number of colony forming units. Cell cycle analysis revealed that a loss of quiescence and an increase in proliferation led to an increase in Grp94 KO HSCs. This expansion of the HSC pool can be attributed to the impaired interaction of HSCs with the niche, evidenced by enhanced HSC mobilization and severely compromised homing and lodging ability of primitive hematopoietic cells. Transplanting wild-type (WT) hematopoietic cells into a GRP94 null microenvironment yielded a normal hematology profile and comparable numbers of HSCs as compared to WT control, suggesting that GRP94 in HSCs, but not niche cells, is required for maintaining HSC homeostasis. Investigating this, we further determined that there was a near complete loss of integrin α4 expression on the cell surface of Grp94 KO HSCs, which showed impaired binding with fibronectin, an extracellular matrix molecule known to play a role in mediating HSC-niche interactions. Furthermore, the Grp94 KO mice displayed altered myeloid and lymphoid differentiation. Collectively, our studies establish GRP94 as a novel cell intrinsic factor required to maintain the interaction of HSCs with their niche, and thus regulate their physiology

    BLOOM: A 176B-Parameter Open-Access Multilingual Language Model

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    Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License