3,790 research outputs found

    Langevin Equation for the Rayleigh model with finite-ranged interactions

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    Both linear and nonlinear Langevin equations are derived directly from the Liouville equation for an exactly solvable model consisting of a Brownian particle of mass MM interacting with ideal gas molecules of mass mm via a quadratic repulsive potential. Explicit microscopic expressions for all kinetic coefficients appearing in these equations are presented. It is shown that the range of applicability of the Langevin equation, as well as statistical properties of random force, may depend not only on the mass ratio m/Mm/M but also by the parameter Nm/MNm/M, involving the average number NN of molecules in the interaction zone around the particle. For the case of a short-ranged potential, when N1N\ll 1, analysis of the Langevin equations yields previously obtained results for a hard-wall potential in which only binary collisions are considered. For the finite-ranged potential, when multiple collisions are important (N1N\gg 1), the model describes nontrivial dynamics on time scales that are on the order of the collision time, a regime that is usually beyond the scope of more phenomenological models.Comment: 21 pages, 1 figure. To appear in Phys. Rev.

    Fast Photometry of Quiescent Soft X-ray Transients with the Gemini-South Acquisition Camera

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    We present a compilation of high time-resolution photometric observations of quiescent soft X-ray transients obtained with the acquisition camera of Gemini-South. A0620-00 was observed with a short cycle time and high precision. Superimposed on the ellipsoidal modulation we find several prominent flares together with weaker continual variability. The flares seen sample shorter timescale than those reported in previous observations, with rise times as low as 30s or less; most flares show unresolved peaks. The power density spectrum (PDS) of A0620-00 appears to exhibit band-limited noise closely resembling the X-ray PDS of black hole candidates in their low states, but with the low-frequency break at a lower frequency. X-ray Nova Mus 1991 shows much larger amplitude flares than A0620-00 and if a break is present it is at a lower frequency. X-ray Nova Vel 1993 shows very little flaring and is, like A0620-00, dominated by the ellipsoidal modulation. We discuss the possible origins for the flares. They are clearly associated with the accretion flow rather than an active companion, but whether they originate in the outer disc, or are driven by events in the inner region is not yet resolved. The similarities of the PDS to those of low/hard state sources would support the latter interpretation, and the low break frequency is as would be expected if this frequency approximately scales with the size of an inner evaporated region. We also report the discovery of a new variable star only 14arcsec from XN Mus 1991. This appears to be a W UMa star, with an orbital period of about 6hrs.Comment: 11 pages, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Radio sources in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

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    We discuss radio sources in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey region. By cross-matching the X-ray sources in this field with the NRAO VLA Sky Survey archival data, we find 12 candidate matches. We present a classification scheme for radio/X-ray matches in surveys taken in or near the Galactic plane, taking into account other multiwavelength data. We show that none of the matches found here is likely to be due to coronal activity from normal stars because the radio to X-ray flux ratios are systematically too high. We show that one of the source could be a radio pulsar, and that one could be a planetary nebula, but that the bulk of the sources are likely to be background active galactic nuclei (AGN), with many confirmed through a variety of approaches. Several of the AGN are bright enough in the near-infrared (and presumably in the optical) to use as probes of the interstellar medium in the inner Galaxy

    ULTRACAM observations of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1118+480 in quiescence

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    We present high time-resolution multicolour observations of the quiescent soft X-ray transient XTE J1118+480 obtained with ULTRACAM. Superimposed on the double-humped continuum g' and i'-band lightcurves are rapid flare events which typically last a few minutes. The power density spectrum of the lightcurves can be described by a broken power-law model with a break frequency at ~2 mHz or a power-law model plus a broad quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) at ~2 mHz. In the context of the cellular-automaton we estimate the size of the quiescent advection-dominated flow (ADAF) region to be ~10^4 Schwarzschild radii, similar to that observed in other quiescent black hole X-ray transients, suggesting the same underlying physics. The similarites between the low/hard and quiescent state PDS suggest a similar origin for the optical and X-ray variability, most likely from regions at/near the ADAF.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, accepted by MNRA

    Optical studies of the X-ray transient XTE J2123-058 -I. Photometry

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    We present optical photometry of the X-ray transient XTE J2123-058, obtained in July-October 1998. The light curves are strongly modulated on the 5.95hrs orbital period, and exhibit dramatic changes in amplitude and form during the decline. We used synthetic models which include the effect of partial eclipses and X-ray heating effects, to estimate the system parameters, and we constrain the binary inclination to be i=73+-4 degrees. The model is successful in reproducing the light curves at different stages of the decay by requiring the accretion disc to become smaller and thinner by 30% as the system fades by 1.7 mags in the optical. From Aug 26 the system reaches quiescence with a mean magnitude of R=21.7+-0.1 and our data are consistent with the optical variability being dominated by the companion's ellipsoidal modulation.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

    A Physical Interpretation of Stagnation Pressure and Enthalpy Changes in Unsteady Flow

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    This paper provides a physical interpretation of the mechanism of stagnation enthalpy and stagnation pressure changes in turbomachines due to unsteady flow, the agency for all work transfer between a turbomachine and an inviscid fluid. Examples are first given to illustrate the direct link between the time variation of static pressure seen by a given fluid particle and the rate of change of stagnation enthalpy for that particle. These include absolute stagnation temperature rises in turbine rotor tip leakage flow, wake transport through downstream blade rows, and effects of wake phasing on compressor work input. Fluid dynamic situations are then constructed to explain the effect of unsteadiness, including a physical interpretation of how stagnation pressure variations are created by temporal variations in static pressure; in this it is shown that the unsteady static pressure plays the role of a time-dependent body force potential. It is further shown that when the unsteadiness is due to a spatial nonuniformity translating at constant speed, as in a turbomachine, the unsteady pressure variation can be viewed as a local power input per unit mass from this body force to the fluid particle instantaneously at that point

    SS433:the microquasar link with ULXs?

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    SS433 is the prototype microquasar in the Galaxy and may even be analogous to the ULX sources if the jets' kinetic energy is taken into account. However, in spite of 20 years of study, our constraints on the nature of the binary system are extremely limited as a result of the difficulty of locating spectral features that can reveal the nature and motion of the mass donor. Newly acquired, high resolution blue spectra taken when the (precessing) disc is edge-on suggest that the binary is close to a common-envelope phase, and hence providing kinematic constraints is extremely difficult. Nevertheless, we do find evidence for a massive donor, as expected for the inferred very high mass transfer rate, and we compare SS433's properties with those of Cyg X-3.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, to appear in "Compact binaries in the Galaxy and beyond

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey: optical catalogue and point-source counterparts to X-ray sources

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    As part of the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS), we present a catalogue of optical sources in the GBS footprint. This consists of two regions centered at Galactic latitude b = 1.5 degrees above and below the Galactic Centre, spanning (l x b) = (6x1) degrees. The catalogue consists of 2 or more epochs of observations for each line of sight in r', i' and H{\alpha} filters. It is complete down to r' = 20.2 and i' = 19.2 mag; the mean 5{\sigma} depth is r' = 22.5 and i' = 21.1 mag. The mean root-mean-square residuals of the astrometric solutions is 0.04 arcsec. We cross-correlate this optical catalogue with the 1640 unique X-ray sources detected in Chandra observations of the GBS area, and find candidate optical counterparts to 1480 X-ray sources. We use a false alarm probability analysis to estimate the contamination by interlopers, and expect ~ 10 per cent of optical counterparts to be chance alignments. To determine the most likely counterpart for each X-ray source, we compute the likelihood ratio for all optical sources within the 4{\sigma} X-ray error circle. This analysis yields 1480 potential counterparts (~ 90 per cent of the sample). 584 counterparts have saturated photometry (r'<17, i'<16), indicating these objects are likely foreground sources and the real counterparts. 171 candidate counterparts are detected only in the i'-band. These sources are good qLMXB and CV candidates as they are X-ray bright and likely located in the Bulge.Comment: 18 pages, 18 figures. Published in MNRAS. 2016MNRAS.458.4530

    The Relationship Between X-ray Luminosity and Duty Cycle for Dwarf Novae and their Specific Frequency in the Inner Galaxy

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    We measure the duty cycles for an existing sample of well observed, nearby dwarf novae using data from AAVSO, and present a quantitative empirical relation between the duty cycle of dwarf novae outbursts and the X-ray luminosity of the system in quiescence. We have found that logDC=0.63(±0.21)×(logLX(ergs1)31.3)0.95(±0.1)\log DC=0.63(\pm0.21)\times(\log L_{X}({\rm erg\,s^{-1}})-31.3)-0.95(\pm0.1), where DC stands for duty cycle. We note that there is intrinsic scatter in this relation greater than what is expected from purely statistical errors. Using the dwarf nova X-ray luminosity functions from \citet{Pretorius12} and \citet{Byckling10}, we compare this relation to the number of dwarf novae in the Galactic Bulge Survey which were identified through optical outbursts during an 8-day long monitoring campaign. We find a specific frequency of X-ray bright (LX>1031ergs1L_{X}>10^{31}\,{\rm erg\,s^{-1}}) Cataclysmic Variables undergoing Dwarf Novae outbursts in the direction of the Galactic Bulge of 6.6±4.7×105M16.6\pm4.7\times10^{-5}\,M_{\odot}^{-1}. Such a specific frequency would give a Solar neighborhood space density of long period CVs of ρ=5.6±3.9×106\rho=5.6\pm3.9\times10^{-6}\,pc3^{-3}. We advocate the use of specific frequency in future work, given that projects like LSST will detect DNe well outside the distance range over which ρconst\rho\approx{\textrm const}.Comment: 9 pagers, 4 figures Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Constraining the nature of the accreting binary in CXOGBS J174623.5-310550

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    We report optical and infrared observations of the X-ray source CXOGBS J174623.5-310550. This Galactic object was identified as a potential quiescent low-mass X-ray binary accreting from an M-type donor on the basis of optical spectroscopy and the broad Halpha emission line. The analysis of X-shooter spectroscopy covering 3 consecutive nights supports an M2/3-type spectral classification. Neither radial velocity variations nor rotational broadening is detected in the photospheric lines. No periodic variability is found in I- and r'-band light curves. We derive r' = 20.8, I = 19.2 and Ks = 16.6 for the optical and infrared counterparts with the M-type star contributing 90% to the I-band light. We estimate its distance to be 1.3-1.8 kpc. The lack of radial velocity variations implies that the M-type star is not the donor star in the X-ray binary. This could be an interloper or the outer body in a hierarchical triple. We constrain the accreting binary to be a < 2.2 hr orbital period eclipsing cataclysmic variable or a low-mass X-ray binary lying in the foreground of the Galactic Bulge.Comment: (9 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS