6 research outputs found

    The positions of mutations and expression of <i>DRD1</i> gene.

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    <p>(A) Domain structures of DRD1 and DDM1 and positions of <i>drd1-6</i>, <i>drd1-p</i> and <i>ddm1-2</i>. Amino acid sequence change from tryptophan (W) to stop codon in helicase superfamily C-terminal (HELICc) domain in <i>drd1-6</i>. The triangle indicates the position of T-DNA insertion in <i>drd1-p</i> mutant. In case of <i>ddm1-2</i>, substitution of G to A in the splice donor site of intron 11 brings about lack of helicase superfamily C-terminal (HELICc) domain. (B) RT-PCR analysis of <i>DRD1</i> and control <i>ACTIN2</i> genes in WT and <i>drd1-p</i> mutant leaves. The <i>drd1-p</i> mutant displayed a decrease in <i>DRD1</i> expression levels compared to WT.</p

    Delayed leaf senescence symptoms in the <i>ddm1-2</i> as well as in the <i>drd1-6</i> mutant.

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    <p>(A) Phenotypes of detached WT, <i>drd1-6</i>, <i>drd1-p</i> and <i>ddm1-2</i> leaves after 0, 3, and 5-d dark incubation. (B) Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in WT and mutant leaves in (A). Data represent average values ± SE (n = 27) of three independent experiments. Bars with the same letter are not significantly different at <i>P</i> < 0.05 by Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test.</p

    Delayed leaf senescence symptoms in the <i>drd1-6</i> mutant at later developmental stages.

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    <p>Rosette leaves of 28-day-old WT and the 34, 36, and 38-day-old <i>drd1-6</i> mutants were detached and darkened for 0, 3, 5 days. Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in WT and mutant leaves was examined at the indicated days. Data represent average values ± SE (n = 20) of independent experiments. Bars with the same letter are not significantly different at <i>P</i> < 0.05 by Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test.</p

    Delayed leaf senescence symptoms in the <i>drd1-6</i> mutant.

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    <p>(A) Phenotypes of 28-day-old and 55-day-old wild-type (WT) and <i>drd1-6</i> mutant whole plants. (B) Individually darkened leaf (IDL) senescence of WT (left) and <i>drd1-6</i> (right) plants. Rosette leaves of 28-day-old WT and <i>drd1-6</i> mutant (IDL 0 d) were induced to undergo senescence for 5 d under dark conditions (IDL 5 d). The red and blue arrows indicate 5 d IDL of WT and <i>drd1-6</i> plants, respectively. (C) Phenotypes of detached WT and <i>drd1-6</i> leaves after 5-d dark incubation. (D) Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and (E) maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) in WT and the <i>drd1-6</i> leaves were examined at the indicated days during dark-induced senescence (DIS). Data represent average values ± SE (n = 27) of three independent experiments. * indicates <i>P</i> < 0.01 by student’s t-test.</p

    Transcript level changes in rosette leaves during DIS.

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    <p>(A) Microarray analysis represents that the numbers of genes show two- (black), three- (gray), or fourfold (white) up- (upper) or down-(lower) regulation in expression of 0 d, 3 d, and 5 d DIS <i>drd1-6</i> mutant compared to WT. (B) The number of genes with two-, three-, or fourfold increase or decrease in gene expression during 3 d and 5 d DIS compared to control (0 d) in the WT and the <i>drd1-6</i> mutant are represented by black, gray, and white bars, respectively. Data represent the means of two independent Affymetrix Gene Chip analyses. FD, fold difference.</p

    Expression of senescence-associated genes in the <i>drd1-6</i> mutant during DIS.

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    <p>(A) RT-PCR and (B) Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of gene expression in WT and the <i>drd1-6</i> mutant leaves at the indicated days. <i>SAG12</i>, senescence-associated gene 12; <i>ANS</i>, antocyanidin synthase gene; <i>CBR</i>, chlorophyll b reductase gene; and <i>PAO</i>, pheophorbide α oxygenase gene. The values are normalized to <i>ACTIN2</i> expression. Data indicate the mean ± SD (n = 9) of three independent experiments.</p
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