202 research outputs found

    Z-Axis Optomechanical Accelerometer

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    We demonstrate a z-axis accelerometer which uses waveguided light to sense proof mass displacement. The accelerometer consists of two stacked rings (one fixed and one suspended above it) forming an optical ring resonator. As the upper ring moves due to z-axis acceleration, the effective refractive index changes, changing the optical path length and therefore the resonant frequency of the optical mode. The optical transmission changes with acceleration when the laser is biased on the side of the optical resonance. This silicon nitride "Cavity-enhanced OptoMechanical Accelerometer" (COMA) has a sensitivity of 22 percent-per-g optical modulation for our highest optical quality factor (Q_o) devicesComment: Published in Proceedings of the 25th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2012), Paris, France, January 29 - Feb 2, 2012, pp. 615-61

    The eruptive history and magmatic evolution of Aluto volcano: new insights into silicic peralkaline volcanism in the Ethiopian rift

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    The silicic peralkaline volcanoes of the East African Rift are some of the least studied volcanoes on Earth. Here we bring together new constraints from fieldwork, remote sensing, geochronology and geochemistry to present the first detailed account of the eruptive history of Aluto, a restless silicic volcano located in a densely populated section of the Main Ethiopian Rift. Prior to the growth of the Aluto volcanic complex (before 500 ka) the region was characterized by a significant period of fault development and mafic fissure eruptions. The earliest volcanism at Aluto built up a trachytic complex over 8 km in diameter. Aluto then underwent large-volume ignimbrite eruptions at 316 ± 19 ka and 306 ± 12 ka developing a ~ 42 km2 collapse structure. After a hiatus of ~ 250 ka, a phase of post-caldera volcanism initiated at 55 ± 19 ka and the most recent eruption of Aluto has a radiocarbon age of 0.40 ± 0.05 cal. ka BP. During this post-caldera phase highly-evolved peralkaline rhyolite lavas, ignimbrites and pumice fall deposits have erupted from vents across the complex. Geochemical modelling is consistent with rhyolite genesis from protracted fractionation (> 80%) of basalt that is compositionally similar to rift-related basalts found east of the complex. Based on the style and volume of recent eruptions we suggest that silicic eruptions occur at an average rate of 1 per 1000 years, and that future eruptions of Aluto will involve explosive emplacement of localised pumice cones and effusive obsidian coulees of volumes in the range 1–100 × 106 m3

    Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and economic modelling of minimal incision total hip replacement approaches in the management of arthritic disease of the hip

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    Objectives: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimal incision approaches to total hip replacement (THR) for arthritis of the hip. Data sources: Major electronic databases were searched from 1966 to 2007. Relevant websites were also examined and experts in the field were consulted. Review methods: Studies of minimal (one or two) incision THR compared with standard THR were assessed for inclusion in the review of clinical effectiveness. A systematic review of economic evaluations comparing a minimal incision approach to standard THR was also performed and the estimates from the systematic review of clinical effectiveness were incorporated into an economic model. Utilities data were sourced to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Due to lack of data, no economic analysis was conducted for the two mini-incision surgical method. Results: Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 17 non-randomised comparative studies, six case series and one registry were found to be useful for the comparison of single mini-incision THR with standard THR. One RCT compared two mini-incision THR with standard THR, and two RCTs, five non-randomised comparative studies and two case series compared two mini-incision with single mini-incision THR. The RCTs were of moderate quality. Most had fewer than 200 patients and had a follow-up period of less than 1 year. The single mini-incision THR may have some perioperative advantages, e.g. blood loss [weighted mean difference (WMD) –57.71 ml, p £30,000) if recovery was 1.5 weeks faster. A threshold analysis around risk of revision showed, using the same cost per QALY threshold, mini-incision THR would have to have no more than a 7.5% increase in revisions compared with standard THR for it to be no longer considered cost-effective (one more revision for every 200 procedures performed). Further sensitivity analysis involved relaxing assumptions of equal long-term outcomes where possible. and broadly similar results to the base-case analysis were found in this and further sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Compared with standard THR, minimal incision THR has small perioperative advantages in terms of blood loss and operation time. It may offer a shorter hospital stay and quicker recovery. It appears to have a similar procedure cost to standard THR, but evidence on its longer term performance is very limited. Further long-term follow-up data on costs and outcomes including analysis of subgroups of interest to the NHS would strengthen the current economic evaluation.The Health Services Research Unit and the Health Economics Research Unit are both core funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Development of a phased array ultrasonic system for residual stress measurement in welding and additive manufacturing

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    Residual Stress (RS) in engineering components can lead to unexpected and dangerous structural failures, and thus represent a significant challenge to quality assurance in both welding and metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The RS measurement using the ultrasonic method is based on the acoustoelasticity law, which states that the Time-of-Flight (ToF) of an ultrasonic wave is affected by the stress field. Longitudinal Critically Refracted (LCR) waves have the highest sensitivity to the stress in comparison with the other type of ultrasonic waves. However, they are also sensitive to the material texture which negatively affects the accuracy of the RS measurement. In this paper, a Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) system, rather than the single element transducers which are traditionally used in the LCR stress measurement technique, is innovatively used to enhance the accuracy of RS measurement. An experimental setup is developed that uses the PAUT to measure the ToFs in the weld, where the maximum amount of tensile RS is expected, and in the parent material, stress-free part. The ToF variations are then interpreted and analyzed to qualify the RS in the weld. The same measurement process is repeated for the Wire Arc Additive Manufacture (WAAM) components. Based on the results, some variations between different acoustic paths are measured which prove that the effect of the residual stress on the ultrasonic wave is detectable using the PAUT system

    Effects of antiplatelet therapy on stroke risk by brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases: subgroup analyses of the RESTART randomised, open-label trial

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    Background Findings from the RESTART trial suggest that starting antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of recurrent symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage compared with avoiding antiplatelet therapy. Brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases (such as cerebral microbleeds) are associated with greater risks of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage. We did subgroup analyses of the RESTART trial to explore whether these brain imaging features modify the effects of antiplatelet therapy

    Population Substructure and Control Selection in Genome-Wide Association Studies

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    Determination of the relevance of both demanding classical epidemiologic criteria for control selection and robust handling of population stratification (PS) represents a major challenge in the design and analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Empirical data from two GWAS in European Americans of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project were used to evaluate the impact of PS in studies with different control selection strategies. In each of the two original case-control studies nested in corresponding prospective cohorts, a minor confounding effect due to PS (inflation factor λ of 1.025 and 1.005) was observed. In contrast, when the control groups were exchanged to mimic a cost-effective but theoretically less desirable control selection strategy, the confounding effects were larger (λ of 1.090 and 1.062). A panel of 12,898 autosomal SNPs common to both the Illumina and Affymetrix commercial platforms and with low local background linkage disequilibrium (pair-wise r2<0.004) was selected to infer population substructure with principal component analysis. A novel permutation procedure was developed for the correction of PS that identified a smaller set of principal components and achieved a better control of type I error (to λ of 1.032 and 1.006, respectively) than currently used methods. The overlap between sets of SNPs in the bottom 5% of p-values based on the new test and the test without PS correction was about 80%, with the majority of discordant SNPs having both ranks close to the threshold. Thus, for the CGEMS GWAS of prostate and breast cancer conducted in European Americans, PS does not appear to be a major problem in well-designed studies. A study using suboptimal controls can have acceptable type I error when an effective strategy for the correction of PS is employed

    Effects on Smoking Cessation: Naltrexone Combined with a Cognitive Behavioral

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    A promising option in substance abuse treatment is the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). The opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) may work in combination with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to block the effects of smoking stimuli in abstinent smokers. Effects of lower doses than 50 mg/dd. have not been reported. A study was conducted in Amsterdam in 2000/2001 with the objective to explore the effects of the combination NTX (25/50-mg dd.), NRT, and CRA in terms of craving and abstinence. In a randomized open label, 2 × 2 between subjects design, 25 recovered spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) participants received 8 weeks of treatment. Due to side effects, only 3 participants were compliant in the 50-mg NTX condition. Craving significantly declined between each measurement and there was a significant interaction between decline in craving and craving measured at baseline. The abstinence rate in the CRA group was nearly double that in the non-psychosocial therapy group (46% vs. 25%; NS) at 3 months follow-up after treatment