1,630 research outputs found

    Logic circuit exhibits optimum performance

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    Performance of circuits are compared to determine the optimum circuit configuration for implementation into microelectronic functions. Comparison is made in terms of power drain, propagation time, and component variations with temperature and load

    One-line γ ray spectroscopic investigation of the 180Hg(T 1/2 = 3 s) decay chain

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    With the rebuilt ISOLDE 2 facility we have investigated on-line the 18080Hg decay products. The decay half-lives, the energies and intensities of the main γ lines of both 180Hg(T 1/2 = 3.0 ± 0.3 s) and 18079Au(T1/2 = 8.1 ± 0.3 s) , and a tentative decay scheme of 18078Pt are given

    Finite elements simulations of thin copper sheets blanking : study of blanking paramaters on sheared edge quality

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    The capabilities of finite elements codes allow now accurate simulations of blanking processes when appropriate materials modelling are used. Over the last decade, numerous numerical studies have focused on the influence of process parameters such as punch-die clearance, tools geometry and friction on blanking force and blank profile (sheared edge). The proposed study focuses on the finite elements simulations of a blanking process using a new viscoplastic model for the evolution of the flow stress coupled with a new damage model. The commercial finite elements code ABAQUS/Explicit has been chosen to simulate the blanking process. The finite elements predictions have been compared with experimental results. Then the finite elements simulations have been used to assess the influence of punch-die clearance as well as the influence of tool wear and friction on sheared edge quality

    Assessment of inoculation methods for screening black alder resistance to Phytophthora ×alni

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    International audienceIdentification of resistance to Phytophthora ×alni could provide the basis for a management strategy against alder decline in riparian ecosystems in Europe. Our objectives were to test methods to evaluate the resistance of riparian alders to the disease, and to screen alder genotypes for resistance. P. ×alni isolates were compared for their stability in collection, aggressiveness (lesion length on stem) and sporulation capacity (sporangia). While no difference of lesion lengths was found between P. ×alni isolates, sporangia production was dependent on isolate, highlighting the need to select carefully isolates for inoculation methods dealing with zoospores suspension. Inoculation tests carried out at different periods of the year revealed a seasonal change in susceptibility to the disease, with the period from June to September being the most efficient for inoculation tests. Stem-wounded inoculations tests carried out on excised shoots were found unreliable for evaluating the level of resistance of alder genotypes to P. ×alni infection, with divergent results between two successive years or between two inoculation periods during the same year. In contrast, a method which mimics the natural conditions of infection based on flooding of rooted cuttings in artificially infected river water was found promising. Another method based on the inoculation of foliated terminal shoots with zoospore suspensions was found to be repeatable and could be used for high throughput analyses. Altogether, the results show a continuous resistance response from highly susceptible to moderately resistant genotypes. This suggests that breeding might be a useful strategy to manage alder decline caused by P. ×alni

    Progrès récents de l'Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique (IRM) chez le nouveau-né. Recent advances in newborn MRI

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    International audienceAbstractThe accurate morphological exploration of the brain is a major challenge in neonatology that advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now provide. MRI is the gold standard if an hypoxic ischemic pathology is suspected in a full term neonate. In prematures, the specific role of MRI remains to be defined, secondary to US in any case. We present a state of the art of hardware and software technical developments in MRI. The increase in magnetic field strength (3 tesla) and the emergence of new MRI sequences provide access to new information. They both have positive and negative consequences on the daily clinical data acquisition use. The semiology of brain imaging in full term newborns and prematures is more extensive and complex and thereby more difficult to interpret. The segmentation of different brain structures in the newborn, even very premature, is now available. It is now possible to dissociate the cortex and basal ganglia from the cerebral white matter, to calculate the volume of anatomical structures, which improves the morphometric quantification and the understanding of the normal and abnormal brain development. MRI is a powerful tool to analyze the neonatal brain. The relevance of the diagnostic contribution requires an adaptation of the parameters of the sequences to acquire and of the image processing methods.RésuméL’exploration morphologique fine du cerveau est un enjeu majeur en néonatalogie que les avancées de l’imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) permettent actuellement. L’IRM est l’examen de choix devant une suspicion de pathologie anoxo-ischémique à terme. Chez le prématuré, la place précise de l’IRM reste à définir, toujours en seconde intention après l’échographie transfontanellaire (ETF). Nous dressons un panorama des évolutions techniques récentes matérielles et logicielles, en IRM. L’augmentation de l’intensité des champs magnétiques (3 teslas) et l’apparition de nouvelles séquences donnent accès à de nouvelles informations. Elles ont des conséquences positives et négatives sur l’acquisition des données en utilisation clinique quotidienne. La sémiologie de l’imagerie cérébrale du nouveau-né et du prématuré est désormais plus riche, plus complexe et donc d’interprétation plus difficile. La segmentation des différentes structures cérébrales devient accessible chez le nouveau-né, même grand prématuré. Il est aujourd’hui possible de dissocier le cortex et les noyaux gris de la substance blanche cérébrale, de calculer des volumes de structures anatomiques, ce qui améliore la quantification morphométrique et la compréhension du développement cérébral normal et pathologique. L’IRM est un outil inégalable et puissant pour l’analyse du cerveau du nouveau-né, dont la pertinence de l’apport diagnostique requiert une adaptation des paramètres des séquences à acquérir et des méthodes de traitement d’images

    Dust altitude and infrared optical depth from AIRS

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    International audienceWe show that mineral dust optical depth and altitude can be retrieved from the Aqua – Advanced Infrared Radiation Sounder (AIRS) measurements. Sensitivity studies performed with a high spectral resolution radiative transfer code show that dust effect on brightness temperatures may reach about 10 Kelvins for some channels. Using a Look-Up-Table approach, we retrieve not only the 10 µm optical depth but also the altitude of Saharan dust layer, above the Atlantic Ocean, from April to September 2003. A key point of our method relies in its ability to retrieve dust altitude from satellite observations. The time and space distribution of the optical depth is in good agreement with the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Comparing MODIS and AIRS aerosol optical depths, we find that the ratio between infrared and visible optical depths decreases during transport from 0.35 to 0.22, revealing a loss in coarse particles caused by gravitational settling. The evolution of dust altitude from spring to summer is in agreement with the transport seasonality

    Améliorer la connaissance du patrimoine en France pour une gestion durable du patrimoine des réseaux d'eau potable

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    IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition, Tokyo, JPN, 16-/09/2018 - 21/09/2018International audienceWith the aim of improving the implementation and evaluation of public policy in France relating to sustainable drinking water asset management (regulation at national level and subsidies at watershed level) the French Ministry of Ecology asked Irstea, a state research body, to create an ongoing system to manage technical and financial knowledge relating to drinking water network assets. In this study we develop a statistical approach to model pipe length by category, based on the geographical characteristics of the territory in which they are installed. Multivariate models including road length have been found to be pertinent. This technical analysis is accompanied by a study of asset values and renewal costs, based on a typology of water suppliers and an examination of economic and financial ratios. A number of disparities between territories are highlighted

    Генетический полиморфизм клонов и их семенного потомства в архивно-клоновой плантации плюсовых деревьев сосны обыкновенной

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    Изучена генетическая изменчивость по 12 аллозимным локусам (10 полиморфных) архивно-клоновой плантации 23 плюсовых деревьев Pinus sylvestris L. и их семенного потомства на юго-востоке Украины. Более половины клонов имели 4–8 гетерозиготных локусов, а их семенное потомство отличалось меньшим уровнем изменчивости, чем материнские растения. Семенное потомство получено от высокой доли ауткроссинга (tm = = 95 %). Для потомства клонов характерна повышенная доля нарушений сегрегации аллелей в мегагаметофитах и высокая встречаемость существенных отклонений в распределении генотипов зародышей семян от теоретически ожидаемого согласно закону Харди Вайнберга.Досліджено генетичну мінливість за 12 алозимними локусами (10 поліморфних) архівно-клонової плантації 23 плюсових дерев Pinus sylvestris L. та їх насіннєвого потомства на південному сході України. Понад половина клонів мали 4–8 гетерозиготних локусів, а їх насіннєве потомство відрізнялося нижчим рівнем мінливості, ніж материнські рослини. Насіннєве потомство отримано від високої частки ауткросинга (tm = 95 %). Для потомства клонів характерна підвищена частка порушень сегрегації алелів у мегагаметофітах і висока частота відхилень розподілу генотипів зародків насіння від очікуваного згідно з законом Харді-Вайнберга.Genetic variation at 12 allozyme loci (10 of them being polymorphic ones) has been studied in the archive-clone plantation of 23 Pinus sylvestris plus-trees and their seed progeny in the south-east of Ukraine. More than a half of clones had 4–8 heterozygous loci, whereas their seed progeny was marked by a lower variation than maternal trees. Seed progeny was obtained at a high outcrossing rate (tm= 95 %). The clone progeny was characterized by a high percentage of abnormal allele segregation in megagametophytes. There was also a high frequency of significant deviation in distribution of seed embryo genotypes from the theoretically expected one according to the Hardy-Weinberg law

    Polymer Sensors for the Quantification of Waterborne Uranium

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    Clandestine activities involving the separation, concentration or manipulation of special nuclear material for the express purpose of developing a weapon of mass destruction is likely to result in the contamination of environmental water sources. The capability to conduct isotopic analyses for waterborne special nuclear material, like uranium, would be a powerful nuclear forensics tool. Despite widespread interest, there currently is no on-line or field-able measurement system available for low-level quantification of uranium in aqueous solutions. A recent development in environmental sensing is a portable, flow cell detector that utilizes extractive scintillating (ES) resin. The ES resin serves the dual purpose of (1) concentrating the radionuclide of interest and (2) serving as a radiation transducer. Currently, such resins are produced by physically absorbing organic extractants and fluors into a polymer matrix. Unfortunately, this approach yields resins with poor stability as the active components leach from the resin over time. This contribution describes our work to increase resin stability by synthesizing ES resin in which the active components are bound covalently within the polymer matrix. The extraction and fluorescence properties of the resin were studied separately before the resin was applied in flow cell detector where detection efficiencies of 40% were achieved