1,061 research outputs found

    Expanding the Life-Span, Life-Space Approach using Critical Race Theory and Intersectionality

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    Super’s (1980, 1996) life-span, life-space approach of career development has had a major influence on the field of career counseling by shifting the focus beyond a ‘singular point of entry’ into to careers to one multiple transition points and trajectories. While Super’s body of theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of career development are vast, the theory does not adequately address the experiences of Black youth. This article focuses on both theory and praxis by discussing the life-span, life-space approach in the context of career development of Black youth. We describe how critical race theory and intersectionality can be used as key organizing principles in an expanded framework along with Super’s life-span, life-space approach to guide practices in college and career counseling. We end with a discussion of the implications for practice

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

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    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    “It’s Just Nice Having a Real Teacher”: Student Perceptions of Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

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    With recent increases in online enrollment, undergraduate students are far more likely to experience an online learning environment than they were in the past. While existing literature provides general insight into reasons why students may or may not prefer online instruction, it is unclear whether these preferences are shaped by student’s perceptions of online learning or actual experience with online courses. To address this gap, undergraduate students enrolled in either online (n=370) or face-to-face (n=360) courses were surveyed about their course format preference. A content analysis of the responses was performed with the findings suggesting that 1) student perceptions may be based on old typologies of distance education akin to correspondence courses, regardless of actual experience with online courses, and 2) course preferences are related to issues involving teaching presence and self-regulated learning. The implications of this research for developing more effective online pedagogy are discussed

    The role of response modalities in cognitive task representations

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    The execution of a task necessitates the use of a specific response modality. We examined the role of different response modalities by using a task-switching paradigm. In Experiment 1, subjects switched between two numerical judgments, whereas response modality (vocal vs. manual vs. foot responses) was manipulated between groups. We found judgment-shift costs in each group, that is irrespective of the response modality. In Experiment 2, subjects switched between response modalities (vocal vs. manual, vocal vs. foot, or manual vs. foot). We observed response-modality shift costs that were comparable in all groups. In sum, the experiments suggest that the response modality (combination) does not affect switching per se. Yet, modality-shift costs occur when subjects switch between response modalities. Thus, we suppose that modality-shift costs are not due to a purely motor-related mechanisms but rather emerge from a general switching process. Consequently, the response modality has to be considered as a cognitive component in models of task switching

    One hundred research questions in conservation physiology for generating actionable evidence to inform conservation policy and practice

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    Environmental change and biodiversity loss are but two of the complex challenges facing conservation practitioners and policy makers. Relevant and robust scientific knowledge is critical for providing decision-makers with the actionable evidence needed to inform conservation decisions. In the Anthropocene, science that leads to meaningful improvements in biodiversity conservation, restoration and management is desperately needed. Conservation Physiology has emerged as a discipline that is well-positioned to identify the mechanisms underpinning population declines, predict responses to environmental change and test different in situ and ex situ conservation interventions for diverse taxa and ecosystems. Here we present a consensus list of 10 priority research themes. Within each theme we identify specific research questions (100 in total), answers to which will address conservation problems and should improve the management of biological resources. The themes frame a set of research questions related to the following: (i) adaptation and phenotypic plasticity; (ii) human-induced environmental change; (iii) human-wildlife interactions; (iv) invasive species; (v) methods, biomarkers and monitoring; (vi) policy, engagement and communication; (vii) pollution; (viii) restoration actions; (ix) threatened species; and (x) urban systems. The themes and questions will hopefully guide and inspire researchers while also helping to demonstrate to practitioners and policy makers the many ways in which physiology can help to support their decisions

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu decay channel, where l = e or mu, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data were collected at the LHC, with the CMS detector, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 inverse femtobarns. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation, and upper limits are set on the Higgs boson production cross section. The presence of the standard model Higgs boson with a mass in the 270-440 GeV range is excluded at 95% confidence level.Comment: Submitted to JHE
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