465 research outputs found

    Outflow Structure and Velocity Field of Orion Source I: ALMA Imaging of SiO Isotopologue Maser and Thermal Emission

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    Using Science Verification data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have identified and imaged five rotational transitions (J=5-4 and J=6-5) of the three silicon monoxide isotopologues 28SiO v=0, 1, 2 and 29SiO v=0 and 28Si18O v=0 in the frequency range from 214 to 246 GHz towards the Orion BN/KL region. The emission of the ground-state 28SiO, 29SiO and 28Si18O shows an extended bipolar shape in the northeast-southwest direction at the position of Radio Source I, indicating that these isotopologues trace an outflow (~18 km/s, P.A. ~50deg, ~5000 AU in diameter) that is driven by this embedded high-mass young stellar object (YSO). Whereas on small scales (10-1000 AU) the outflow from Source I has a well-ordered spatial and velocity structure, as probed by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) imaging of SiO masers, the large scales (500-5000 AU) probed by thermal SiO with ALMA reveal a complex structure and velocity field, most likely related to the effects of the environment of the BN/KL region on the outflow emanating from Source I. The emission of the vibrationally-excited species peaks at the position of Source I. This emission is compact and not resolved at an angular resolution of ~1.5" (~600 AU at a distance of 420 pc). 2-D Gaussian fitting to individual velocity channels locates emission peaks within radii of 100 AU, i.e. they trace the innermost part of the outflow. A narrow spectral profile and spatial distribution of the v=1 J=5-4 line similar to the masing v=1 J=1-0 transition, provide evidence for the most highly rotationally excited (frequency > 200 GHz) SiO maser emission associated with Source I known to date. The maser emission will enable studies of the Source I disk-outflow interface with future ALMA longest baselines.Comment: Accepted to A&A, 11 pages, 13 figure

    The structure of the accretion disk in NGC 4258 derived from observations of its water vapor masers

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    A wealth of new information about the structure of the maser disk in NGC 4258 has been obtained from a series of 18 VLBA observations spanning three years, as well as from 32 additional epochs of spectral monitoring data from 1994 to the present, acquired with the VLA, Effelsberg, and GBT. The warp of the disk has been defined precisely. The thickness of the maser disk has been measured to be 12 microarcseconds (FWHM), which is slightly smaller than previously quoted upper limits. Under the assumption that the masers trace the true vertical distribution of material in the disk, from the condition of hydrostatic equilibrium the sound speed is 1.5 km/s, corresponding to a thermal temperature of 600K. The accelerations of the high velocity maser components have been accurately measured for many features on both the blue and red side of the spectrum. The azimuthal offsets of these masers from the midline (the line through the disk in the plane of the sky) and derived projected offsets from the midline based on the warp model correspond well with the measured offsets. This result suggests that the masers are well described as discrete clumps of masing gas, which accurately trace the Keplerian motion of the disk. However, we have continued to search for evidence of apparent motions caused by ``phase effects.'' This work provides the foundation for refining the estimate of the distance to NGC 4258 through measurements of feature acceleration and proper motion. The refined estimate of this distance is expected to be announced in the near future.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, to appear in proceedings of IAU Symposium 242 "Astrophysical Masers and their Environments", held in Alice Springs, March 200

    Cover Crop Establishment and Potential Benefits to Arkansas Farmers

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    Soybean farmers in Arkansas need best management practices (BMPs) that maximize the benefits of using cover crops including planting date and fertilization recommendations. An evaluation of cover crop species, planting dates, seeding rates, fertilizer rates, and N accumulation aids in providing these BMPs. The first objective of this research is to assess the effect of planting date on biomass production, as well as looking at the interaction of seeding rate or fertilizer rate for legumes or non-legumes, respectively, using Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum), cereal rye (Secale cereale), black oats (Avena strigosa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and tillage radish (Raphanus sativus). Crops were planted on five dates in three locations across the primary crop production regions of Arkansas, using either variable Agrotain-treated urea rates or variable seeding rates. Agrotain is a N fertilizer additive that inhibits urease activity and limits ammonia volatilization loss potential. A 0.9 x 0.9 m sample of above-ground biomass was oven-dried and weighed to determine total cover crop biomass production. This research found that earlier planting dates were preferable for all species and that fertilizer or seeding rates did not have much effect on establishment and biomass across all planting dates. The second objective was to gauge the potential N credits by assessing the N accumulation via biological N fixation of three legumes in two locations. Three species were evaluated and compared for N accumulation at termination – Austrian winter pea, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). Pea biomass was taken from the above study, and pea, vetch, and clover biomasses were taken from an herbicide tolerance study. A 0.9x0.9 meter sample of above-ground biomass was oven-dried, ground, and analyzed for total N. This study found that Austrian winter pea generated more biomass on average, and accumulated the most N

    Overview of NH-ME ECHO SCOPE: Supporting children of the opioid epidemic

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    The primary goal of the ECHO SCOPE (Supporting Children of the Opioid Epidemic) training is to increase the capacity of early intervention providers to care for infants impacted by opioids and their families by providing evidence-informed training.https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/ccids_media/1006/thumbnail.jp

    A heterozygous variant in the human cardiac miR-133 gene, MIR133A2, alters miRNA duplex processing and strand abundance

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    BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Sequential cleavage of miRNA precursors results in a ~22 nucleotide duplex of which one strand, the mature miRNA, is typically loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) while the passenger strand is degraded. Very little is known about how genetic variation might affect miRNA biogenesis and function. RESULTS We re-sequenced the MIR1-1, MIR1-2, MIR133A1, MIR133A2, and MIR133B genes, that encode the cardiac-enriched miRNAs, miR-1 and miR-133, in 120 individuals with familial atrial fibrillation and identified 10 variants, including a novel 79T > C MIR133A2 substitution. This variant lies within the duplex at the 3' end of the mature strand, miR-133a-3p, and is predicted to prevent base-pairing and weaken thermostability at this site, favoring incorporation of the passenger strand, miR-133a-5p, into RISC. Genomic DNA fragments containing miR-133a-2 precursor sequences with 79T and 79C alleles were transfected into HeLa cells. On Northern blotting the 79T allele showed strong expression of miR-133a-3p with weak expression of miR-133a-5p. In contrast, the 79C allele had no effect on miR-133a-3p but there was a significant increase (mean 3.6-fold) in miR-133a-5p levels. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries prepared from normal human and murine atria confirmed that nearly all the mature miR-133a was comprised of miR-133a-3p and that levels of miR-133a-5p were very low. A number of isomiRs with variations at 5' and 3' ends were identified for both miR-133a-3p and miR-133a-5p, with 2 predominant miR-133a-3p isomiRs and one predominant miR-133a-5p isomiR. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that the major miR-133a-3p and 5p isomiRs have numerous predicted target mRNAs, only a few of which are in common. CONCLUSIONS Multiple miR-133a isomiRs with potential different mRNA target profiles are present in the atrium in humans and mice. We identified a human 79T > C MIR133A2 variant that alters miRNA processing and results in accumulation of the miR-133a-5p strand that is usually degraded

    Over the Hurdles: Barriers to Social Media Use in Extension Offices

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    The research reported here explored the perceived barriers to social media use by Extension educators. Using a sequential mixed method approach, the research was composed of two parts. The qualitative study used interview data (n=27) from Wisconsin and New York Extension educators. The quantitative study gathered data from surveying Extension offices in New York State (n=42). We argue that key barriers to adoption of social media as an outreach platform include perceptions around time and control. Ultimately, we recommend that Extension educators receive focused, hands-on training to more efficiently and effectively use social media for education and outreach efforts

    Agrarian Straightjacket: Constraints to Achieve Yield Potential in Rice

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    The coastal zone of Bangladesh is the most vulnerable region of the eastern Ganges basin, occupies about 30% (46,000 km2) of the country’s land area and is home to some of the world’s poorest and most food insecure 39 million people, whose livelihoods depend primarily on agriculture and aquaculture. Key challenges to both agricultural and aquacultural productivity include excessive flooding during the rainy season, lack of access to fresh water and soil salinity during the dry season, and severe cyclonic storms and tidal surges throughout the year. These challenges will be exacerbated as a result of climate change and is expected to leave the communities most vulnerable and food insecure in the coming years

    Detection of 183 GHz water megamaser emission towards NGC 4945

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    Aim: The aim of this work is to search Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4945, a well-known 22 GHz water megamaser galaxy, for water (mega)maser emission at 183 GHz. Method: We used APEX SEPIA Band 5 to perform the observations. Results: We detected 183 GHz water maser emission towards NGC 4945 with a peak flux density of ~3 Jy near the galactic systemic velocity. The emission spans a velocity range of several hundred km/s. We estimate an isotropic luminosity of > 1000 Lsun, classifying the emission as a megamaser. A comparison of the 183 GHz spectrum with that observed at 22 GHz suggests that 183 GHz emission also arises from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) central engine. If the 183 GHz emission originates from the circumnuclear disk, then we estimate that a redshifted feature at 1084 km/s in the spectrum should arise from a distance of 0.022 pc from the supermassive black hole (1.6 x 10(5) Schwarzschild radii), i.e. closer than the water maser emission previously detected at 22 GHz. This is only the second time 183 GHz maser emission has been detected towards an AGN central engine (the other galaxy being NGC 3079). It is also the strongest extragalactic millimetre/submillimetre water maser detected to date. Conclusions: Strong millimetre 183 GHz water maser emission has now been shown to occur in an external galaxy. For NGC 4945, we believe that the maser emission arises, or is dominated by, emission from the AGN central engine. Emission at higher velocity, i.e. for a Keplerian disk closer to the black hole, has been detected at 183 GHz compared with that for the 22 GHz megamaser. This indicates that millimetre/submillimetre water masers can indeed be useful probes for tracing out more of AGN central engine structures and dynamics than previously probed. Future observations using ALMA Band 5 should unequivocally determine the origin of the emission in this and other galaxies.Comment: 4 pages, accepted by A&A Letter
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