62 research outputs found

    Festividades sazonais e comunitárias no currículo em educação de infância

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    Relatório apresentado para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Educação Pré-EscolarO presente relatório engloba o percurso formativo ao longo da prática de ensino supervisionada em contexto de Creche e Jardim de Infância, refletindo as aprendizagens realizadas e as dificuldades sentidas, assim como a emergência de questões decorrentes da prática. A problemática estudada, centrada nas valências de Creche e de Jardim de Infância, refere-se à Importância das festividades sazonais e comunitárias num currículo em Educação de Infância. A partir da abordagem do significado e importância das festividades feita por alguns autores, o presente estudo tem como objetivo geral compreender a importância atribuída pelas educadoras de infância à celebração das festividades, quais as datas que privilegiam, os motivos que justificam essas escolhas, assim como as implicações que identificam para as aprendizagens e para o desenvolvimento infantil. O estudo, qualitativo e de carácter exploratório, utiliza para a recolha de dados a técnica do inquérito por entrevista. Conclui-se que nas duas valências as profissionais integram no trabalho educativo a comemoração de determinados dias festivos, garantindo a sua importância e considerando que promovem aprendizagens em todas as áreas do desenvolvimento.The present report covers the formative path along the supervised teaching practice in the context of Nursery and Kindergarten, reflecting the learning achieved and difficulties experienced as well as the emergence of issues arising from practice. The studied problem, focusing on the valences of Nursery and Preschool, refers to the importance of seasonal and community festivities in a curriculum in Childhood Education. From the approach to the meaning and importance of the festivities by some authors, this study has the overall objective of understanding the importance given by the kindergarten teachers to the celebration of the festivities, which dates that privilege, the reasons for these choices, as well as identifying the implications for learning and child development. The study, of qualitative and exploratory nature, uses for data collection technique interview survey. It is concluded that on both valences, the kindergarten teachers integrate on the educational work the celebration of certain festive days, ensuring their importance as promoters of learning in all areas of development.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plant pathogenic fungi

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    <p>Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plant pathogenic fungi</p

    The maximum likelihood tree of FslK members.

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    <p>The phylogenetic tree was built with the kinase domain sequences using PhyML 3.1 and was drawn using Interactive Tree Of Life Version 2.2.2 (<a href="http://itol.embl.de/#" target="_blank">http://itol.embl.de/#</a>). The p-values of approximate likelihood ratios (SH-aLRT) plotted as circle marks on the branches (only p-values>0.5 are indicated) and circle size is proportional to the p-values. Filled red circles mark sequences used in the <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone-0089813-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a>. For abbreviations see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813.s003" target="_blank">Table S1</a>.</p

    Multiple sequence alignments of representative members of FslK.

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    <p>The consensus sequences of Protein kinase domain (Pkinase, pfam00069) and Catalytic domain of Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKc, cd00192) were used as references. Eleven sub-domains of FslK catalytic domains were shown. Conserved amino acid residues related to crystal structure and catalytic function <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813-Hanks1" target="_blank">[1]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813-Taylor1" target="_blank">[9]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813-Hanks2" target="_blank">[10]</a> in protein kinases were indicated below. The default color scheme for ClustalW alignment in the Jalview program was used.</p

    The Pmk1 and Mps1 pathways and their relationship with cAMP signaling in <i>Magnaporthe oryzae</i>.

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    <p><b>A.</b> Distinct and overlapping functions of the cAMP-PKA pathway and Pmk1 and Mps1 MAPK cascades during plant infection. <b>B.</b> Physical and chemical signals known to trigger appressorium formation include surface hydrophobicity and hardness, cutin monomers, plant surface waxes, and primary alcohols. Msb2, Sho1, Pth11, and Cbp1 are involved in recognizing extracellular or surface signals to activate the downstream cAMP-PKA pathway and Mst11-Mst7-Pmk1 MAPK cascade. Both the trimeric G-proteins and Ras monomeric G-proteins are functionally related to these two pathways that regulate appressorium formation, penetration, and invasive growth. Although its upstream sensors have not been characterized, the Bck1-Mkk2-Mps1 cascade likely functions downstream from PKC and is important for sporulation, appressorium penetration, and pathogenesis via downstream Mig1, Swi6, and possibly other transcription factors. The adapter protein Mst50 is involved in both Pmk1 and Mps1 pathways. Mip11 is a RACK protein that interacts with both Mst50 and Mck1. Pmk1 positively regulates Mst12, Mcm1, Sfl1, and likely other transcription factors during different infection processes. Together with the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex, Sfl1 also functions as a transcriptional repressor for hyphal growth. cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; MAPK, MAP kinase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKC, protein kinase C; RACK, receptor for activated C kinase.</p

    The distribution of FslK members in fungal species used in this study.

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    <p>The species tree was drawn based on the phylogenetic tree of α-tubulins. The red bar indicates the number of FslK members.</p

    Phylogenetic position of the FslK.

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    <p>Phylogenetic trees were calculated using Maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods, respectively. Both methodologies gave similar tree topology. The tree presented here is the BI tree. Numbers on major branches indicate SH-like approximate likelihood ratio test (SH-aLRT) probabilities/Bayesian posterior probabilities. Branches with Bayesian posterior probability less than 0.5 have been collapsed. The simple cladogram of eukaryotic groups on the top right corner was drawn according to the tree of life (<a href="http://tolweb.org/tree/" target="_blank">http://tolweb.org/tree/</a>). Ac, <i>Acanthamoeba castellanii</i>; At, <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>; Ce, <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i>; Cr, <i>Chlamydomonas reinhardtii</i>; Dd, <i>Dictyostelium discoideum</i>; Dm, <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>; Eh, <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i>; Hs, <i>Homo sapiens</i>; Mb, <i>Monosiga brevicollis</i>; Mm, <i>Mus musculus</i>; Pi, <i>Phytophthora infestans</i>; Pr, <i>Phytophthora ramorum</i>; Ps, <i>Phytophthora sojae</i>; Su, <i>Sea Urchin</i>; Tv, <i>Trichomonas vaginalis</i>. For abbreviations of fungi see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813.s003" target="_blank">Table S1</a>.</p

    Functional diversity of the HOG pathway in yeast and plant-pathogenic fungi.

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    <p>Schematic model of the HOG pathway that is mainly involved in hyperosmoregulation in <i>S</i>. <i>cerevisiae</i>. Although lacking redundant MEK kinases, filamentous ascomycetes generally have orthologs of all these conserved components of the Hog1 pathway, including MEKK, MEK, and upstream phosphorelay and sensor proteins. Besides its conserved role in osmoregulation, this pathway has species-specific functions in pathogenesis, vegetative growth, fungicide sensitivity, sexual and asexual development, and responses to oxidative, cell wall, and other stresses in different plant pathogenic fungi. Filled and empty circles indicate that the Hog1/OS-2 kinase is important or dispensable, respectively, for specific functions characterized in different fungi. HOG, high-osmolarity glycerol; MEK, MAPK kinase; MEKK, MEK kinase.</p

    Comparison of sequence patterns in TK-specific motifs.

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    <p><b>A</b>. Sub-domains of the protein kinase domain. Consensus sequences DL(R/A)A(A/R)N in subdomain VI and XP(I/V)(K/R)W(T/M)APE in subdomain VIII are specific to TKs. The motif in red [GXR(M/L)] was identified in this study. The motif CW(X)<sub>6</sub>RPXF in gray was found to be not specific to TKs in this study (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813.s002" target="_blank">Figure S2</a>). <b>B</b>. The LOGOs show sequence patterns of the three motifs in each group. Red arrow heads indicate conserved amino acid residues that are diagnostic for TKs.</p

    Wild-type and mutant strains of <i>Magnaporthe oryzae</i> used in this study.

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    <p>Wild-type and mutant strains of <i>Magnaporthe oryzae</i> used in this study.</p
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