1,069 research outputs found

    Thermosensory micromapping of warm and cold sensitivity across glabrous and hairy skin of male and female hands and feet

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    The ability of hands and feet to convey skin thermal sensations is an important contributor to our experience of the surrounding world. Surprisingly, the detailed topographical distribution of warm and cold thermosensitivity across hands and feet has not been mapped, although sensitivity maps exist for touch and pain. Using a recently developed quantitative sensory test, we mapped warm and cold thermosensitivity of 103 skin sites over glabrous and hairy skin of hands and feet in male (M; 30.2 ± 5.8 yr) and female (F; 27.7 ± 5.1 yr) adults matched for body surface area (M: 1.77 ± 0.2 m2; F: 1.64 ± 0.1 m2; P = 0.155). Findings indicated that warm and cold thermosensitivity varies by fivefold across glabrous and hairy skin of hands and feet and that hands (warm/cold sensitivity: 1.25/2.14 vote/°C) are twice as sensitive as the feet (warm/cold sensitivity: 0.51/0.99 vote/°C). Opposite to what is known for touch and pain sensitivity, we observed a characteristic distal-to-proximal increase in thermosensitivity over both hairy and glabrous skin (i.e., from fingers and toes to body of hands and feet), and found that hairy skin is more sensitive than glabrous. Finally, we show that body surface area-matched men and women presented small differences in thermosensitivity and that these differences are constrained to glabrous skin only. Our high-density thermosensory micromapping provides the most detailed thermosensitivity maps of hands and feet in young adults available to date. These maps offer a window into peripheral and central mechanisms of thermosensory integration in humans and will help guide future developments in smart skin and sensory neuroprostheses, in wearable, energy-efficient personal comfort systems, and in sport and protective clothing

    Formamidinium Incorporation into Compact Lead Iodide for Low Band Gap Perovskite Solar Cells with Open-Circuit Voltage Approaching the Radiative Limit

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    To bring hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells toward the Shockley-Queisser limit requires lowering the band gap while simultaneously increasing the open-circuit voltage. This, to some extent divergent objective, may demand the use of largecations to obtain a perovskite with larger lattice parameter together with a large crystalsize to minimize interface nonradiative recombination. When applying the two-stepmethod for a better crystal control, it is rather challenging to fabricate perovskites withFA+cations, given the small penetration depth of such large ions into a compact PbI2film. In here, to successfully incorporate such large cations, we used a high-concentration solution of the organic precursor containing small Cl-anions achieving,via a solvent annealing-controlled dissolution-recrystallization, larger than 1µmperovskite crystals in a solar cell. This solar cell, with a largely increasedfluorescencequantum yield, exhibited an open-circuit voltage equivalent to 93% of thecorresponding radiative limit one. This, together with the low band gap achieved(1.53 eV), makes the fabricated perovskite cell one of the closest to the Shockley-Queisser optimum.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

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    <p>The reaction enthalpies (Δ<i>H</i>), reaction Gibbs energies (Δ<i>G</i>) and energy barrier heights with ZPE corrections (Δ<i>E</i>+ZPE), at 298 K, for the reactions of SA with ·OH in water phase (in kJ/mol).</p

    物件索引

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    千葉医学雑誌70-

    Genetic and functional characterization of disease associations explains comorbidity

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    Understanding relationships between diseases, such as comorbidities, has important socio-economic implications, ranging from clinical study design to health care planning. Most studies characterize disease comorbidity using shared genetic origins, ignoring pathway-based commonalities between diseases. In this study, we define the disease pathways using an interactome-based extension of known disease-genes and introduce several measures of functional overlap. The analysis reveals 206 significant links among 94 diseases, giving rise to a highly clustered disease association network. We observe that around 95% of the links in the disease network, though not identified by genetic overlap, are discovered by functional overlap. This disease network portraits rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, pulmonary diseases and Crohn's disease as hubs and thus pointing to common inflammatory processes underlying disease pathophysiology. We identify several described associations such as the inverse comorbidity relationship between Alzheimer's disease and neoplasms. Furthermore, we investigate the disruptions in protein interactions by mapping mutations onto the domains involved in the interaction, suggesting hypotheses on the causal link between diseases. Finally, we provide several proof-of-principle examples in which we model the effect of the mutation and the change of the association strength, which could explain the observed comorbidity between diseases caused by the same genetic alterations

    Additional file 1 of Automated recognition and analysis of body bending behavior in C. elegans

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    Additional file 1. Specific experimental data of Caenorhabditis elegans behavioral phenotypes database and ‘escape response’ database

    The instantaneous work of single-frequency excitations (<i>A</i><sub><i>e</i></sub> = 1 <i>g</i>, <i>R</i><sub><i>L</i></sub> = 1 kΩ) for the five difference cases (i.e. I–V).

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    <p>Solid lines: the prototype device. Dashed lines: the artificial system without the amplitude constraint.</p

    Additional file 1: of Optimization of the fermentation process of Cordyceps sobolifera Se-CEPS and its anti-tumor activity in vivo

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    Fermentation medium optimization of Cordyceps sobolifera extracellular polysaccharide (CEPS). Figure S1. Effects of carbon source on CEPS. Figure S2. Effects of concentration of potato on CEPS. Figure S3. Effects of nitrogen source on CEPS. Figure S4. Effects of concentration of peptone on CEPS. Figure S5. Effects of inorganic salt on CEPS. Figure S6. Effects of concentration of KH2PO4 on CEPS. (DOC 29 kb

    Vector representation of the excitation <i>F</i>(<i>x</i>, <i>t</i>) and the velocity of the response x˙(t).

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    <p>Vector representation of the excitation <i>F</i>(<i>x</i>, <i>t</i>) and the velocity of the response <math><mrow><mi>x</mi><mo>˙</mo><mrow><mo>(</mo><mi>t</mi><mo>)</mo></mrow></mrow></math>.</p
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