11 research outputs found

    Entre la minimización y la expansión del Derecho Penal: la presencia de Beccaria en el debate contemporáneo

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    En el Derecho penal contempor√°neo se producen las mismas discusiones que se manifestaron hace m√°s de doscientos a√Īos. ¬ŅQu√© fines persigue la pena?, ¬Ņqu√© debemos proteger a trav√©s del Derecho penal y qu√© debe ser tutelado por otras formas menos violentas?, ¬Ņcu√°l es el fin del Derecho penal? √Čstas y algunos otros interrogantes son los que han matizado durante d√©cadas el tema del delito y el delincuente en un Estado de Derecho. En la actual sociedad del riesgo, se est√° produciendo una expansi√≥n del sentido y alcance del Derecho penal. Esta expansi√≥n socava las bases de la pretensi√≥n de un Derecho penal de √ļltima ratio, m√°s cuando el nuevo modelo de Estado ha superado el Estado de Derecho, transform√°ndose en un Estado Social y Democr√°tico de Derecho. Algunas de las claves conceptuales para el logro de este derecho penal m√≠nimo pueden ser encontradas en la obra de Beccaria hace ya m√°s de doscientos a√Īos

    Criminological approach to the study of economic crime in Granma - Cuba

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    In this research, we propose to analyze the economic crime and the different theories and concepts that from criminology have been made about this subject. As we will see, economic crimes are not sociological or criminological basis in the reasons given to the traditional economic crime from the criminological point of view. These crimes, also called of ‚Äúcuello blanco‚ÄĚ, have certain characteristics that differentiate them from the rest of the crime and the perpetrators do not respond to the usual pattern of the offender. So our principal objective is to characterize the economic crime in the current Cuban society, based on sociological studies conducted by various institutions in this regard. Under scientific problem that motivates, defined by the following question: What are the main characteristics that presents economic crime in Cuban society? Using for this purpose the following methods: Method of Analysis and Synthesis, Logical Analysis, Historical Legal, Sociological Method, Materialistic Dialectical Method. As research technique was used the literature review of materials we consider more updated on the subject. Presenting results in a fundamental characterization of the phenomenon of economic crime from the criminological point of view

    Training of lawyers with a social sense: a perspective from Law as a science

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    This article develops the proposal of legal training based on the understanding of law as a human science, which means, it generates a greater emphasis on its object of study compared to human behavior as a social subject and as a central element that is complemented by the learning of legal sociology. This proposal seeks to transcend the classic study of law as a discipline aimed at the mere operation of normative syllogisms and the application of legal techniques facing certain conducts or rules of a legal system. To this end, the role of law as a social and political science is highlighted, which takes place in a given context and, as a consequence of this context, it regulates social relations based on the behaviors and dynamics of the human being within a collective. Finally, a series of competences of being, knowledge and doing are proposed that allow to direct legal training from the immutable social character of this discipline that uses technology to offer alternative solutions to the swing of social relations. Este art√≠culo desarrolla la propuesta de formaci√≥n jur√≠dica a partir de la comprensi√≥n del derecho como ciencia humana, es decir, genera un mayor √©nfasis en su objeto de estudio frente al comportamiento humano como sujeto social y como elemento central que se complementa con el aprendizaje de la sociolog√≠a jur√≠dica. Esta propuesta busca trascender el estudio cl√°sico del derecho como disciplina dirigida al mero funcionamiento de silogismos normativos y la aplicaci√≥n de t√©cnicas jur√≠dicas frente a determinadas conductas o reglas de un ordenamiento jur√≠dico. Para ello, se destaca el papel del derecho como ciencia social y pol√≠tica, que se desarrolla en un contexto determinado y, como consecuencia de este contexto, regula las relaciones sociales a partir de los comportamientos y din√°micas del ser humano dentro de un colectivo. Finalmente, se proponen una serie de competencias de ser, saber y hacer que permiten orientar la formaci√≥n jur√≠dica desde el car√°cter social inmutable de esta disciplina que se sirve de la tecnolog√≠a para ofrecer soluciones alternativas al vaiv√©n de las relaciones sociales.   &nbsp

    ¬ŅEs posible aplicar directamente la responsabilidad del superior del Estatuto¬†de¬†Roma en Colombia?

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    The ‚Äúsuperior responsibility‚ÄĚ is a form of responsibility in international criminal law, which allows civilian and military superiors to be criminally liabled for crimes under international law committed by their subordinates. This figure is described in article 28 of the Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute). Despite the fact that the Colombian Penal Code does not recognize the responsibility of the superior, the Supreme Court of Justice directly applied the article 28 of the Rome Statute for the first time in the sentence SP5333-2018 of December 12, 2018, to judge a paramilitary commander according to this figure for crimes committed by his subordinates within the framework of the Justice and Peace Law. The purpose of the investigation was to analyze the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court of Justice on the responsibility of the superior. The methodology used was hermeneutical, where the academic literature and the most relevant jurisprudence on the subject were studied. The results of the investigation consisted in developing the two legal discussions on the responsibility of the superior that are present in the sentence SP5333-2018, the first, on the handling of the sources of international law, particularly about the direct application of the Statute of Rome, and the second, regarding the nature and content of the superior‚Äôs responsibility. This research constitutes a great contribution to the study of international criminal law in our country. Finally, the investigation revealed that the responsibility of the superior has been wrongly developed in Colombia.La ‚Äúresponsabilidad del superior‚ÄĚ es una forma de responsabilidad del derecho penal internacional, la cual permite juzgar penalmente a los superiores civiles y militares, por los cr√≠menes de derecho internacional cometidos por sus sub¬≠ordinados. Esta figura se encuentra consagrada en el art√≠culo 28 del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional (Estatuto de Roma). No obstante, el C√≥digo Penal colombiano no reconoce la responsabilidad del superior, la Corte Suprema de Justicia aplic√≥ directamente el art√≠culo 28 del Estatuto de Roma por primera vez en la sentencia SP5333-2018 del 12 de diciembre de 2018, para juzgar conforme a esta figura a un comandante paramilitar por delitos cometidos por sus subordinados en el marco de la Ley de Justicia y Paz. El prop√≥sito de la investigaci√≥n fue analizar la jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema de Justicia sobre la responsabilidad del superior. La metodolog√≠a utilizada fue de tipo hermen√©utico, en donde se estudi√≥ la literatura acad√©mica y la jurisprudencia m√°s relevante sobre el tema. Los resultados de la investigaci√≥n consistieron en desarrollar las dos grandes discusiones jur√≠dicas sobre la responsabilidad del superior que est√°n presentes en la sentencia SP5333-2018, la primera, sobre el manejo de las fuentes del derecho internacional, particularmente acerca de la aplicaci√≥n directa del Estatuto de Roma, y la segunda, respecto a la naturaleza y contenido de la responsabilidad del superior. Esta investigaci√≥n constituye un gran aporte al estudio del derecho penal internacional en nuestro pa√≠s. Por √ļltimo, la indagaci√≥n revel√≥ que la responsabilidad del superior ha desarrollada equivocadamente en Colombia

    Conceptos b√°sicos y pr√°cticos de la extradici√≥n en el derecho penal colombiano: en la b√ļsqueda de cimentar un tratado de aplicaci√≥n general y con fundamento en los derechos humanos

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    Under the issue of Colombia of 1991 Constitution, banned the extradition of Colom-bians by birth, all under the difficult social situation facing the country with the drug cartels influencing the political decisions of the time. However, it was established that, if they have committed a crime abroad, considered as such in national legislation, they would be processed and judged in Colombia. This situation changed on the occasion of the legislative act 01 of December 16, 1997, amending article 35 of the plitical charter allowing again extradition of Colombians (Osorio, 2015).Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to understand that in this instrument of inter-national cooperation there are exceptions for the acceptance of extradition requests. The first one is national convenience, that is to say, for political, economic or social reasons, and the second is related to the sovereignty of the state. The previous ones must be of the analysis of the executive, because the power of this legal figure falls on this one.It is understood, then, that extradition must operate in accordance with the constitution, the law, international treaties and the principles of criminl law, international criminal law and international law. It is being clear that, based on the foregoing, extradition does not operate in the case of political crimes, or hat, not being political, they will be carried out by a Colombian by birth before December 17, 1997. Besides, that crimes for which it is being requested are behaviours constituting criminalization in Colombia and the penalty for these is not less than four years of imprisonment and the person is legallyand formal-ly linked to a criminal process by indictment or its eqivalent resolution (Osorio, 2015).However, there are many human rights violations that are committed with this type of procedure, and even more when the States do away with the regulation of such an important legal figure. The rules of extradition, such as international cooperation, must be the containment of human rights and the guarantees of human rights, their constitu-tions and laws, and the fact of having committed a thing.Regarding the methodology, this research was carried out through the documentary col-lection and systematic reading of primary and secondary sources. The primary sources are official documents that include: government management reports, laws, decrees and resolutions, news reports, communiqu√©s from social and political organizations, among others; Secondary sources refer to the reading of journals, analyzes and me-dia opinion columns. After this review, a second stage will consist of classifying and systematizing the information obtained, based on the textual and descriptive content sheets. In a third, the sequence of writing of the synthesis and inferential processes that gave birth to the final result of the text must be elaborated. Particularly in this research is sought, from the method of documentary analysis, applying the qualitative methodology, evaluate and show results to the knowledge of law.Bajo la expedici√≥n de la Constituci√≥n de 1991 en Colombia, se prohibi√≥ la extradici√≥n¬†de colombianos por nacimiento, todo ello en virtud de la dif√≠cil situaci√≥n social que¬†afrontaba el pa√≠s con los carteles de la droga que influenciaban sobre las decisiones¬†pol√≠ticas de la √©poca. Sin embargo, estableci√≥ que, si hubieren cometido un delito en el¬†exterior, considerado como tal en la legislaci√≥n nacional, ser√≠an procesados y juzgados¬†en Colombia. Esta situaci√≥n¬† cambi√≥ con ocasi√≥n del Acto Legislativo 01 del 16 de diciembre¬†de 1997, que modific√≥ el art√≠culo 35 de la Carta Pol√≠tica permitiendo de nuevo¬†la extradici√≥n de colombianos (Osorio, 2015).Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigaci√≥n se centra en entender que en este instrumento de cooperaci√≥n internacional se encuentran unas excepciones de cara a la¬†aceptaci√≥n de las solicitudes de extradici√≥n. La primera de ellas es la conveniencia¬†nacional, es decir, por motivos pol√≠ticos, econ√≥micos o sociales, y la segunda tiene¬†relaci√≥n con la soberan√≠a del Estado. Las anteriores deben ser del an√°lisis del ejecutivo,¬†pues la potestad de esta figura jur√≠dica recae sobre √©ste.Se entiende, entonces, que la extradici√≥n debe funcionar con arreglo a la Constituci√≥n,¬†a la ley, a los tratados internacionales y a los principios del derecho penal, de penal¬†internacional y el derecho internacional; teni√©ndose claridad que, con fundamento a lo¬†anterior, no opera la extradici√≥n cuando se trate de delitos pol√≠ticos, o que no siendo¬†pol√≠ticos se efectuaran por un colombiano por nacimiento antes del 17 de diciembre de¬†1997; que los delitos por los que est√° siendo requerido sean conductas constitutivas¬†de criminalizaci√≥n en Colombia; que la pena para estas no sea inferior a cuatro a√Īos¬†de prisi√≥n y que la persona se encuentre vinculada jur√≠dica y formalmente a un proceso¬†penal por resoluci√≥n de acusaci√≥n o su equivalente (Osorio, 2015).Sin embargo, son muchas las violaciones a los derechos humanos que se cometen con¬†este tipo de procedimientos, y m√°s a√ļn cuando los Estados hacen a un lado la regulaci√≥n¬†de tan importante figura jur√≠dica. La normativa de la extradici√≥n como cooperaci√≥n¬†internacional debe estar contenida en tratados internacionales que den cuenta del respeto¬†por los derechos y garant√≠as inherentes a los seres humanos, sus constituciones¬†y leyes, pues aquel que ha cometido un delito jam√°s puede ser despojado de su humanidad¬†y convertido en una cosa.En cuanto a la metodolog√≠a, esta investigaci√≥n se realiz√≥ mediante la ecopilaci√≥n¬†documental y lectura sistem√°tica de fuentes de car√°cter primario y secundario. Las¬†fuentes primarias son los documentos oficiales que comprenden: informes de gesti√≥n¬†gubernamental, leyes, decretos y resoluciones, cr√≥nicas noticiosas, comunicados de¬†las organizaciones sociales y pol√≠ticas, entre otros; las fuentes secundarias se refieren¬†a la lectura de revistas, an√°lisis y columnas de opini√≥n de medios. Luego de esta revisi√≥n,¬†una segunda etapa consistir√° en clasificar y sistematizar la informaci√≥n obtenida,¬†a partir de las fichas de contenido textual y descriptivo. En una tercera ha de elaborarse¬† la secuencia de redacci√≥n de la s√≠ntesis y procesos inferenciativos que dieron nacimiento al resultado final del texto. Particularmente en esta investigaci√≥n se busca, a partir del m√©todo de an√°lisis documental, aplicando la metodolog√≠a cualitativa, evaluar y presentar resultados al conocimiento del derecho

    Elective cancer surgery in COVID-19-free surgical pathways during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: An international, multicenter, comparative cohort study

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    PURPOSE As cancer surgery restarts after the first COVID-19 wave, health care providers urgently require data to determine where elective surgery is best performed. This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19‚Äďfree surgical pathways were associated with lower postoperative pulmonary complication rates compared with hospitals with no defined pathway. PATIENTS AND METHODS This international, multicenter cohort study included patients who underwent elective surgery for 10 solid cancer types without preoperative suspicion of SARS-CoV-2. Participating hospitals included patients from local emergence of SARS-CoV-2 until April 19, 2020. At the time of surgery, hospitals were defined as having a COVID-19‚Äďfree surgical pathway (complete segregation of the operating theater, critical care, and inpatient ward areas) or no defined pathway (incomplete or no segregation, areas shared with patients with COVID-19). The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, unexpected ventilation). RESULTS Of 9,171 patients from 447 hospitals in 55 countries, 2,481 were operated on in COVID-19‚Äďfree surgical pathways. Patients who underwent surgery within COVID-19‚Äďfree surgical pathways were younger with fewer comorbidities than those in hospitals with no defined pathway but with similar proportions of major surgery. After adjustment, pulmonary complication rates were lower with COVID-19‚Äďfree surgical pathways (2.2% v 4.9%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.86). This was consistent in sensitivity analyses for low-risk patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 1/2), propensity score‚Äďmatched models, and patients with negative SARS-CoV-2 preoperative tests. The postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection rate was also lower in COVID-19‚Äďfree surgical pathways (2.1% v 3.6%; aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.76). CONCLUSION Within available resources, dedicated COVID-19‚Äďfree surgical pathways should be established to provide safe elective cancer surgery during current and before future SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks

    Elective Cancer Surgery in COVID-19-Free Surgical Pathways During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: An International, Multicenter, Comparative Cohort Study.