82 research outputs found

    Ecological niche modeling of rabies in the changing Arctic of Alaska

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    Additional file 3. Location data of rabies cases used for model assessment. This file lists the location of rabies cases provided by the Alaska Section of Epidemiology in the Department of Health and Social Services of the State of Alaska

    Interactions between the rabies virus and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A potential role in rabies virus induced behavior modifications

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    Rabies causes approximately 60,000 casualties annually and has a case fatality rate approaching 100% once clinical signs occur. The glycoprotein on the surface of the virion is important for the host immune response and facilitates interaction of the virion with host cell receptors. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were the first receptors identified as a molecular target for the rabies virus. Additional targets, including neural cell adhesion molecule, p75 neurotrophin receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, and integrin β1, have been added to the list, all of which can mediate viral entry into the cell. Multiple receptors and different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors result in a complex picture of virus-receptor interactions. In addition, some data suggest that the rabies virus glycoprotein inhibits cell signalling events mediated by various nicotinic receptor subtypes that have been implicated in altering behaviour in unaffected animals. This review focuses on interactions between the rabies virus glycoprotein and nicotinic receptors and proposes possible functional consequences, including behavioural modifications and therapeutic approaches for future research.publishedVersio

    Pengaruh Infusa Buah Mengkudu (Morinda Citrifolia, L.) terhadap Kadar Glukosa Darah Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar yang Dibebani Glukosa

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    Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap pengaruh infusa buah mengkudu (Morinda Citrifolia, L.) terhadap penurunan kadar glukosa darah yang dibebankan pada tikus normal. Penelitian ini menggunakan uji toleransi oral, dengan cara membebani tikus normal yang telah dipuasakan 12-18 jam dengan glukosa. Berat badan tikus yang digunakan 150-200 g, jantan, umur 2-3 bulan. Tikus dibagi menjadi lima kelompok, antara lain kelompok kontrol negatif (CMC Na 1%), kelompok kontrol positif ( Glibenklamid dosis 1,89 mg/kg BB), kelompok infusa buah mengkudu dengan tiga peringkat dosis yaitu: 1,22 mg/kg BB; 2,44 mg/kg BB; 4,89 mg/kg BB. Pemberian glukosa pada pembebanan adalah 2 g/kg BB. Darah diambil dari vena lateralis ekor pada menit ke-0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, dihitung dari saat pemberian glukosa. Kadar glukosa darah ditetapkan secara enzimatik dengan reagen GOD PAP. Data AUC0-300 dianalisis dengan uji anova satu jalan dengan taraf kepercayaan 95% dan kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji LSD. Uji anova satu jalan terhadap AUC0-300 memberikan nilai yang signifikan atau ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara control negatif terhadap perlakuan (control positif dank e-3 dosis mengkudu). Persen daya hipoglikemik yang didapat Infusa buah mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) pada dosis 1,22; 2,44; 4,89 g/kg BB menunjukkan efek hipoglikemik sebesar 32,50 %; 31,68 %; 27,47 %

    The wisdom of crowds: predicting a weather and climate-related event

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    types: ArticleArticle published in open-access journal, Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 8(2), pp. 91-105Environmental uncertainty is at the core of much of human activity, ranging from daily decisions by individuals to long-term policy planning by governments. Yet, there is little quantitative evidence on the ability of non-expert individuals or populations to forecast climate-related events. Here we report on data from a 90-year old prediction game on a climate related event in Alaska: the Nenana Ice Classic (NIC). Participants in this contest guess to the nearest minute when the ice covering the Tanana River will break, signaling the start of spring. Previous research indicates a strong correlation between the ice breakup dates and regional weather conditions. We study betting decisions between 1955 and 2009. We find the betting distribution closely predicts the outcome of the contest. We also find a significant correlation between regional temperatures as well as past ice breakups and betting behavior, suggesting that participants incorporate both climate and historical information into their decision-making

    Diversification of a Salmonella Virulence Protein Function by Ubiquitin-Dependent Differential Localization

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    SummaryMany bacterial pathogens and symbionts utilize type III secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells. These effector proteins have the capacity to modulate a large variety of cellular functions in a highly regulated manner. Here, we report that the phosphoinositide phosphatase SopB, a Salmonella Typhimurium type III secreted effector protein, diversifies its function by localizing to different cellular compartments in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. We show that SopB utilizes the same enzymatic activity to modulate actin-mediated bacterial internalization and Akt activation at the plasma membrane and vesicular trafficking and intracellular bacterial replication at the phagosome. Thus, by exploiting the host cellular machinery, Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved the capacity to broaden the functional repertoire of a virulence factor to maximize its ability to modulate cellular functions

    Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

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    Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris) in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from < 1% to 50% and 4% to 18% for selected populations of wildlife species and humans, respectively. We reviewed and summarized known literature on tularemia surveillance in Alaska and summarized the epidemiological information on human cases reported to public health officials. Additionally, available F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state

    The wisdom of crowds: Predicting a weather and climate-related event

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    Environmental uncertainty is at the core of much of human activity, ranging from daily decisions by individuals to long-term policy planning by governments. Yet, there is little quantitative evidence on the ability of non-expert individuals or populations to forecast climate-related events. Here we report on data from a 90-year old prediction game on a climate related event in Alaska: the Nenana Ice Classic (NIC). Participants in this contest guess to the nearest minute when the ice covering the Tanana River will break, signaling the start of spring. Previous research indicates a strong correlation between the ice breakup dates and regional weather conditions. We study betting decisions between 1955 and 2009. We find the betting distribution closely predicts the outcome of the contest. We also find a significant correlation between regional temperatures as well as past ice breakups and betting behavior, suggesting that participants incorporate both climate and historical information into their decision-making

    Enhancing Grant-Writing Expertise in BUILD Institutions: Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity

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    Background The lack of race/ethnic and gender diversity in grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a persistent challenge related to career advancement and the quality and relevance of health research. We describe pilot programs at nine institutions supported by the NIH-sponsored Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) program aimed at increasing diversity in biomedical research. Methods We collected data from the 2016–2017 Higher Education Research Institute survey of faculty and NIH progress reports for the first four years of the program (2015–2018). We then conducted descriptive analyses of data from the nine BUILD institutions that had collected data and evaluated which activities were associated with research productivity. We used Poisson regression and rate ratios of the numbers of BUILD pilots funded, students included, abstracts, presentations, publications, and submitted and funded grant proposals. Results Teaching workshops were associated with more abstracts (RR 4.04, 95% CI 2.21–8.09). Workshops on grant writing were associated with more publications (RR 2.64, 95% CI 1.64–4.34) and marginally with marginally more presentations. Incentives to develop courses were associated with more abstracts published (RR 4.33, 95% CI 2.56–7.75). Workshops on research skills and other incentives were not associated with any positive effects. Conclusions Pilot interventions show promise in supporting diversity in NIH-level research. Longitudinal modeling that considers time lags in career development in moving from project development to grants submissions can provide more direction for future diversity pilot interventions

    Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Arctic Rabies Viruses and Their Reservoir Hosts in Greenland

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    There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV) lineage (arctic-3), but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska) and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1-4) with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I - 3.VII) with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population structure in Greenland arctic foxes based on mitochondrial sequences, but provided no evidence for independent isolated evolutionary development of RABV in different arctic fox lineages. These data are invaluable to support future initiatives for arctic fox rabies control and elimination in Greenland
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