44 research outputs found

    Expression of gene encoding flavonol synthase isolating from trung du xanh tea (Camellia sinensis var. macrophylla) in E. coli

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    Common flavonols in plants including quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin are synthesized from dihydroflavonols (dihydroquercetin-DHQ, dihydrokaempferol-DHK and dihydromyricetin-DHM) by flavonol synthase (FLS). In tea, FLS has been shown to metabolize dihydroquercetin to quercetin. The FLS gene was cloned and sequenced from the cultivated tea (Camellia sinensis var. macrophylla) in Thai Nguyen province. In this study, we presented the results of optimizing and designing an expression vector for recombinant FLS (recombinant FLS-rFLS). The FLS gene was ligated completely to the pET32a (+) vector, then expressed in E. coli Rosetta1 and Rosetta2 strain. Using 1mM IPTG to induce the expression of rFLS at 37oC, rFLS was obtained with 52.83 kDa in size and existed predominantly as insoluble form. E. coli Rosetta1 pET32a (+)_FLSproduces rFLS in the soluble fraction than E. coli Rosetta2 pET32a (+)_FLS. Next, E. coli Rosetta1 pET32a (+)_FLSwas optimized for expression at temperatures of 30oC, 23oC and 16oC (24 and 48 hours). After being induced for expression with 1mM IPTG in 48 hours and cultured at 16oC, E. coli Rosetta1 strain containing pET32a (+) FLS produced the largest amount of rFLS in the soluble form.

    Expression of Oryza sativa galactinol synthase gene in maize (Zea may L.)

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    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key biological catalyst for the synthesis of the raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs) which play important roles in abiotic stress adaptation of plants, especially drought tolerance. GolS gene has been isolated on a variety of plants in order to create material resources for generating transgenic plants resistant to adverse environmental factors. In our previous research, we have isolated a GolS gene from drought stress cDNA library of Oryza sativa L. Moctuyen (named OsGolS). In this study, the expression vector pCAM-Rd/OsGolS carrying the isolated OsGolS gene under the control of stress-inducible Rd29A promoter was constructed and introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, which was used for maize transformation.  PCR and Real-time PCR assay indicated that transgene was integrated in the genome of the regenerated Zea mays plants. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that the OsGolS was transcribed into mRNA in Zea mays and was highly expressed. These results provide a basis for the study of the function of OsGolS in drought responses and for the development of drought stress tolerant crops.

    INFLUENCING FACTORS TO LOGISTICS CENTRE FORMATION – A STUDY OF VIETNAM-BASED LOGISTICS SECTOR

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    Purpose of the study: The paper tries to model dynamic interactions of factors that contribute to the logistics center building. Conducting the desk review and expert consultation, the causality of the factors is systemized in a form of Causal Loop Diagram using the System Dynamics approach. Methodology: System Dynamics (SD) is an approach for studying interlinked behaviors within a system and reflects the interactions of feedback loops. Compared to other approaches, SD demonstrates the real world by using factors and stocks for components and feedback loops for inter-relationships among them. SD model qualitatively illustrates the causal relationship among factors that influence the building of the logistics center. Main Findings: A combination of four different sub-systems, using a questionnaire survey conducted with logistics service users and providers to sort out the high scored factors. Besides, the survey also helps to study the practical conditions and characteristics in showing the demand, the trend, and the development of logistics centers in Vietnam. Applications of this study: Logistics centers (LCs) can be considered as a depot for vehicles where drivers and managers of vehicles are supposed to maintain, repair vehicles, and adjust vehicle operation schedules. Novelty/Originality of this study: As defined by the scope of the project, the SD model provides a qualitative demonstration of the interaction among factors. The built model gives a systematic insight into how factors link to each other

    Isolation and characterization of a c-repeat binding factor gene from Tevang-1 maize cultivar

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    C-repeat binding factor (CBF) proteins are transcription factors involved in plant response to abiotic stresses, especially low-temperature condition. In this research, a CBF3-coding gene was isolated from a cold-acclimation maize variety, Zea mays var. Tevang-1 and denoted as ZmCBF3tv. The isolated gene shared 96.49% homology with the B73-reference gene and had no intron in the coding sequence. By using bioinformatic tools, a number of variations in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were identified. An alignment between ZmCBF3tv and other CBF/DREB1 proteins from various species revealed functional regions and typical features, such as nuclear localization signal (NLS), the AP2 DNA-binding domain, and acidic-amino-acid-rich segments. Additionally, a phylogenetic analysis based on the AP2 domain showed that the maize CBF3 transcription factor had the highest similarity with that from rice and closely related to other DREB1/CBF protein of monocots. The function of the ZmCBF3tv product is suggested to be a CBF/DREB1 transcription factor.    

    Awareness and preparedness of healthcare workers against the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey across 57 countries.

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    BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, there have been concerns related to the preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWs). This study aimed to describe the level of awareness and preparedness of hospital HCWs at the time of the first wave. METHODS: This multinational, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted among hospital HCWs from February to May 2020. We used a hierarchical logistic regression multivariate analysis to adjust the influence of variables based on awareness and preparedness. We then used association rule mining to identify relationships between HCW confidence in handling suspected COVID-19 patients and prior COVID-19 case-management training. RESULTS: We surveyed 24,653 HCWs from 371 hospitals across 57 countries and received 17,302 responses from 70.2% HCWs overall. The median COVID-19 preparedness score was 11.0 (interquartile range [IQR] = 6.0-14.0) and the median awareness score was 29.6 (IQR = 26.6-32.6). HCWs at COVID-19 designated facilities with previous outbreak experience, or HCWs who were trained for dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, had significantly higher levels of preparedness and awareness (p<0.001). Association rule mining suggests that nurses and doctors who had a 'great-extent-of-confidence' in handling suspected COVID-19 patients had participated in COVID-19 training courses. Male participants (mean difference = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.46; p<0.001) and nurses (mean difference = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.81; p<0.001) had higher preparedness scores compared to women participants and doctors. INTERPRETATION: There was an unsurprising high level of awareness and preparedness among HCWs who participated in COVID-19 training courses. However, disparity existed along the lines of gender and type of HCW. It is unknown whether the difference in COVID-19 preparedness that we detected early in the pandemic may have translated into disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 burden of disease by gender or HCW type

    Safety and efficacy of fluoxetine on functional outcome after acute stroke (AFFINITY): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Trials of fluoxetine for recovery after stroke report conflicting results. The Assessment oF FluoxetINe In sTroke recoverY (AFFINITY) trial aimed to show if daily oral fluoxetine for 6 months after stroke improves functional outcome in an ethnically diverse population. Methods AFFINITY was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in 43 hospital stroke units in Australia (n=29), New Zealand (four), and Vietnam (ten). Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke in the previous 2–15 days, brain imaging consistent with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, and a persisting neurological deficit that produced a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 1 or more. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 via a web-based system using a minimisation algorithm to once daily, oral fluoxetine 20 mg capsules or matching placebo for 6 months. Patients, carers, investigators, and outcome assessors were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was functional status, measured by the mRS, at 6 months. The primary analysis was an ordinal logistic regression of the mRS at 6 months, adjusted for minimisation variables. Primary and safety analyses were done according to the patient's treatment allocation. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000774921. Findings Between Jan 11, 2013, and June 30, 2019, 1280 patients were recruited in Australia (n=532), New Zealand (n=42), and Vietnam (n=706), of whom 642 were randomly assigned to fluoxetine and 638 were randomly assigned to placebo. Mean duration of trial treatment was 167 days (SD 48·1). At 6 months, mRS data were available in 624 (97%) patients in the fluoxetine group and 632 (99%) in the placebo group. The distribution of mRS categories was similar in the fluoxetine and placebo groups (adjusted common odds ratio 0·94, 95% CI 0·76–1·15; p=0·53). Compared with patients in the placebo group, patients in the fluoxetine group had more falls (20 [3%] vs seven [1%]; p=0·018), bone fractures (19 [3%] vs six [1%]; p=0·014), and epileptic seizures (ten [2%] vs two [<1%]; p=0·038) at 6 months. Interpretation Oral fluoxetine 20 mg daily for 6 months after acute stroke did not improve functional outcome and increased the risk of falls, bone fractures, and epileptic seizures. These results do not support the use of fluoxetine to improve functional outcome after stroke

    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk–outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk–outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk–outcome associations. Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk–outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017. Findings In 2017, 34·1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33·3–35·0) deaths and 1·21 billion (1·14–1·28) DALYs were attributable to GBD risk factors. Globally, 61·0% (59·6–62·4) of deaths and 48·3% (46·3–50·2) of DALYs were attributed to the GBD 2017 risk factors. When ranked by risk-attributable DALYs, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the leading risk factor, accounting for 10·4 million (9·39–11·5) deaths and 218 million (198–237) DALYs, followed by smoking (7·10 million [6·83–7·37] deaths and 182 million [173–193] DALYs), high fasting plasma glucose (6·53 million [5·23–8·23] deaths and 171 million [144–201] DALYs), high body-mass index (BMI; 4·72 million [2·99–6·70] deaths and 148 million [98·6–202] DALYs), and short gestation for birthweight (1·43 million [1·36–1·51] deaths and 139 million [131–147] DALYs). In total, risk-attributable DALYs declined by 4·9% (3·3–6·5) between 2007 and 2017. In the absence of demographic changes (ie, population growth and ageing), changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs would have led to a 23·5% decline in DALYs during that period. Conversely, in the absence of changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs, demographic changes would have led to an 18·6% increase in DALYs during that period. The ratios of observed risk exposure levels to exposure levels expected based on SDI (O/E ratios) increased globally for unsafe drinking water and household air pollution between 1990 and 2017. This result suggests that development is occurring more rapidly than are changes in the underlying risk structure in a population. Conversely, nearly universal declines in O/E ratios for smoking and alcohol use indicate that, for a given SDI, exposure to these risks is declining. In 2017, the leading Level 4 risk factor for age-standardised DALY rates was high SBP in four super-regions: central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia; north Africa and Middle East; south Asia; and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania. The leading risk factor in the high-income super-region was smoking, in Latin America and Caribbean was high BMI, and in sub-Saharan Africa was unsafe sex. O/E ratios for unsafe sex in sub-Saharan Africa were notably high, and those for alcohol use in north Africa and the Middle East were notably low. Interpretation By quantifying levels and trends in exposures to risk factors and the resulting disease burden, this assessment offers insight into where past policy and programme efforts might have been successful and highlights current priorities for public health action. Decreases in behavioural, environmental, and occupational risks have largely offset the effects of population growth and ageing, in relation to trends in absolute burden. Conversely, the combination of increasing metabolic risks and population ageing will probably continue to drive the increasing trends in non-communicable diseases at the global level, which presents both a public health challenge and opportunity. We see considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity in levels of risk exposure and risk-attributable burden. Although levels of development underlie some of this heterogeneity, O/E ratios show risks for which countries are overperforming or underperforming relative to their level of development. As such, these ratios provide a benchmarking tool to help to focus local decision making. Our findings reinforce the importance of both risk exposure monitoring and epidemiological research to assess causal connections between risks and health outcomes, and they highlight the usefulness of the GBD study in synthesising data to draw comprehensive and robust conclusions that help to inform good policy and strategic health planning

    Erratum: Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Interpretation: By quantifying levels and trends in exposures to risk factors and the resulting disease burden, this assessment offers insight into where past policy and programme efforts might have been successful and highlights current priorities for public health action. Decreases in behavioural, environmental, and occupational risks have largely offset the effects of population growth and ageing, in relation to trends in absolute burden. Conversely, the combination of increasing metabolic risks and population ageing will probably continue to drive the increasing trends in non-communicable diseases at the global level, which presents both a public health challenge and opportunity. We see considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity in levels of risk exposure and risk-attributable burden. Although levels of development underlie some of this heterogeneity, O/E ratios show risks for which countries are overperforming or underperforming relative to their level of development. As such, these ratios provide a benchmarking tool to help to focus local decision making. Our findings reinforce the importance of both risk exposure monitoring and epidemiological research to assess causal connections between risks and health outcomes, and they highlight the usefulness of the GBD study in synthesising data to draw comprehensive and robust conclusions that help to inform good policy and strategic health planning

    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.