284 research outputs found

    A Bayesian binary algorithm for root mean squared-based acoustic signal segmentation

    Get PDF
    Changepoint analysis (also known as segmentation analysis) aims to analyze an ordered, one-dimensional vector in order to find locations where some characteristic of the data changes. Many models and algorithms have been studied under this theme, including models for changes in mean and/or variance, changes in linear regression parameters, etc. This work is interested in an algorithm for the segmentation of long duration acoustic signals; the segmentation is based on the change of the root-mean-square power of the signal. It investigates a Bayesian model with two possible parameterizations and proposes a binary algorithm in two versions using non-informative or informative priors. These algorithms are tested in the segmentation of annotated acoustic signals from the Alcatrazes marine preservation park in Brazil

    Nest Biology and Demography of the Fungus-Growing Ant Cyphomyrmex lectus Forel (Myrmicinae; Attini) at a Disturbed Area Located in Rio Claro, SP, Brazil

    Get PDF
    Cyphomyrmex ants are a basal group of small fungus-growers (Myrmicinae:Attini), which differ profoundly from their most studied relatives Atta and Acromyrmex. Our objective was to investigate the nest biology and demography of the fungus-growing ant Cyphomyrmex lectus in a transitional area (savanna-forest) disturbed by an annual fire regime, in Southeast Brazil. The colonies of C. lectus were located close to each other (mean distance between nests, 3.38 ± 2.75 m). Its external nest structure consisted of a single circular nest-entrance hole but without a conspicuous nest mound. Nests were relatively simple consisting of a single well-formed chamber and a single gallery connecting to the nest entrance. No relationships were found between ant number per colony and gallery length, as well as chamber volume. Nonetheless, we detected an effect of the ant number per colony on chamber depth. In this sense, a deeper chamber could warrant a better protection against fire, natural enemies and offer favorable micro-conditions to yeast culture. The colonies of C. lectus are small (a mean of 70 ± 49.4 individuals/colony). Alates, larvae and pupae were found only in one out of eight colonies. A single dealate queen per colony was observed strongly suggesting that this species is monogynous. Further studies could evaluate whether (1) nests density differ before and after fire periods, (2) fire occurrence affects the survival and establishment rate of new colonies, as well as (3) the nest microclimatic conditions necessary to yeast culture

    Arboreal Ant Assemblages Respond Differently to Food Source and Vegetation Physiognomies: a Study in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Get PDF
    This study aimed to analyze assemblages of arboreal ants in different vegetation physiognomies within the Tropical Moist Forest (Atlantic Rain Forest) domain. The study was carried out at the Michelin Ecological Reserve, State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. We used sardine (protein resource) and honey (carbohydrate resource) baits to collect ants foraging in three vegetation types: (1) preserved native forest, (2) forest in regeneration (capoeira) with many invasive plants and (3) a mixed agroystem of rubber and cocoa tree plantation. We recorded 69 ant species attracted to the baits, 21 of them exclusive to honey bait and 25 exclusive to the sardine baits. The vegetation physiognomies preserved forest and rubber/cacao agrosystem showed higher species richness in relation to the forest in regeneration (capoeira), suggesting that rubber tree plantations can be a good matrix for the maintenance of some ant species typical of the forest matrix. The type of resource used is important for the structuring of the arboreal ant assemblages. The ants that were attracted to protein resources showed a guild composition that is more differentiated between vegetation types that of ants attracted to glucose resources

    A note on the karyotype and morphology of the ant Platythyrea sinuata (Roger, 1860) (Formicidae, Ponerinae, Plathytyreini

    Get PDF
    The taxonomic status of Platythyrea is still confused because there is high phenotypic plasticity, possible taxonomic synonyms and morphological proximity with other species of the same genus. The correct identification of Platythyrea sinuata depends on interdisciplinary analyzes with a morphological and genetic approach. Here we provide the description of karyotype for P. sinuata, 2k=24M+20A with CMA3+/DAPI- on single chromosome. This data will be helpful to the understanding of the taxonomic status of this species

    Attractive dipolar coupling between stacked exciton fluids

    Get PDF
    The interaction between aligned dipoles is long-ranged and highly anisotropic: it changes from repulsive to attractive depending on the relative positions of the dipoles. We report on the observation of the attractive component of the dipolar coupling between excitonic dipoles in stacked semiconductor bilayers. We show that the presence of a dipolar exciton fluid in one bilayer modifies the spatial distribution and increases the binding energy of excitonic dipoles in a vertically remote layer. The binding energy changes are explained by a many-body polaron model describing the deformation of the exciton cloud due to its interaction with a remote dipolar exciton. The results open the way for the observation of theoretically predicted new and exotic collective phases, the realization of interacting dipolar lattices in semiconductor systems as well as for engineering and sensing their collective excitations.Comment: 11 Pages, 9 Figure

    New Records and Potential Distribution of the ant Gracilidris pombero Wild & Cuezzo (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Get PDF
    Gracilidris pombero Wild & Cuezzo, 2006 is an ant that remains poorly studied. Endemic from South America, its geographical distribution is known from few and scattered collection points. In this study, we present new occurrence records of G. pombero obtained through extensive collections along the Cerrado biome and the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Based on the new and existing occurrence records we produced a model of the geographic distribution of G. pombero. Modelling method was chosen based on maximization of model performance after evaluating a series of modelling approaches, including different parametrizations of the Maxent algorithm and distinct runs of the GARP algorithm. We found a total of 43 new records of G. pombero in Brazil, including the first records of this species in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piauí, Sergipe and Tocantins. Based on our model, the areas of highest suitability of occurrence of G. pombero are located in two main zones in South America: one ranging from midwestern Brazil to southeastern Bolivia and Paraguay; and the other spanning the South of Brazil and Uruguay

    FBST for a Generalized Poisson Distribution.

    Get PDF
    The Generalized Poisson Distribution (GPD) adds an extra parameter to the usual Poisson distribution. This parameter induces a loss of homogeneity in the stochastic processes modeled by the distribution. Thus, the generalized distribution becomes an useful model for counting processes where the occurrence of events is not homogeneous. This model creates the need for an inferential procedure, to test for the value of this extra parameter. The FBST (Full Bayesian Significance Test) is a Bayesian hypotheses test procedure, capable of providing an evidence measure on sharp hypotheses (where the dimension of the parametric space under the null hypotheses is smaller than that of the full parametric space). The goal of this work is study the empirical properties of the FBST for testing the nullity of extra parameter of the generalized Poisson distribution. Numerical experiments show a better performance of FBST with respect to the classical likelihood ratio test, and suggest that FBST is an efficient and robust tool for this application
    • …