1,385 research outputs found

    Risk Decisions in German Constitutional and Administrative Law

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    Are there Border Effects in the EU Wage Function?

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    We estimate a linear approximation of the market potential function for Europe as derived in geography and trade models. Using a spatial econometric estimation approach, border effects are identified by a differential impact of other regions purchasing power, depending on whether two regions are located within the EU15 or outside the EU15. We find that intra EU15-borders have an insignificant but external borders a significant effect on regional wage structures. We illustrate the magnitude of EU external border effects by simulating the enlargement of the EU in May 2004. Our results suggest a large impact of the border for new member states, but a relatively small one for old members.market potential, border effects, spatial econometrics

    Market Potential and Border Effects in Europe

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    We estimate a linear approximation of the market potential function for Europe as derived in geography and trade models. Using a spatial econometric estimation approach, border effects are identified by a differential impact of nearby regions' purchasing power, depending on whether two regions are located within the EU15 or outside the EU15. Our results reveal substantial market potential effects on nominal wage rates. We also find significant border effects between EU15 and non-EU15 countries. Our estimation results suggest that the enlargement of the EU in May 2004 may lead to pronounced wage effects in the new member states, but to relatively small ones for the existing members and that regional disparities within new member states will increase.

    Unitarisierung durch Gemeinschaftsgrundrechte

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    Rechnungslegung und Demokratie

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    Die Internationalen Brigaden: Politische ĂĽberwachung und repression nach sichtung der russichen und westlichen archivatken

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    En este artículo se presenta un estudio sobre las Brigadas Internacionales a partir de registros y documentos procedentes de Moscú y Berlín. Los autores valoran si hubo o no una vigilancia y represión políticas en la Guerra Civil sobre los voluntarios brigadistas por parte de la Policía Secreta del Partido Comunista soviético (NKVD) y cuál fue el papel del Servicio de Información Militar republicano (SIM)

    Strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas and nitrogen emissions in Swiss agriculture: the application of an integrated sector model

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    Environmental impacts of agricultural production, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) and nitrogen emissions, are of major concern for scientists and policy makers throughout the world. Global agricultural activities account for about 60% of nitrous oxide and about 50% of methane emissions. From a global perspective, methane and nitrous oxide constitute crucial GHGs. They contribute substantially to climate change due to their high potential for effecting global warming compared to carbon dioxide. Emissions of these gases depend on the extent of agricultural production and applied technologies. Therefore, analysis of potential mitigation opportunities is challenging and requires an integrated approach in order to link agricultural economic perspectives to environmental aspects. In view of this, a mathematical programming model has been developed which enables assessment of cost-effective strategies for mitigating GHG and nitrogen emissions in the agricultural sector in Switzerland. This model is applied to improve understanding of the agricultural sector and its behavior with changing conditions in technology and policy. The presented recursive-dynamic model mimics the structure and inter- dependencies of Swiss agriculture and links that framework to core sources of GHG and nitrogen emissions. Calculated results for evaluation and application indicate that employed flexibility constraints provide a feasible approach to sufficiently validate the described model. Recursive-dynamic elements additionally enable adequate modeling of both an endogenous development of livestock dynamics and investments in buildings and machinery, also taking sunk costs into account. The presented findings reveal that the specified model approach is suitable to accurately estimate agricultural structure, GHG and nitrogen emissions within a tolerable range. The model performance can therefore be described as sufficiently robust and satisfactory. Thus, the model described here appropriately models strategies for GHG and nitrogen abatement in Swiss agriculture. The results indicate that there are limits to the ability of Swiss agriculture to contribute substantially to the mitigation of GHG and nitrogen emissions. There is only a limited level of mitigation available through technical approaches, and these approaches have high cost.resource use, environmental economics, greenhouse gas emission, nitrogen emission, integrated modeling
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