20,370 research outputs found

    Thermotropic Nematic and Smectic Order in Silica Glass Nanochannels

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    Optical birefringence measurements on a rod-like liquid crystal (8OCB), imbibed in silica channels (7 nm diameter), are presented and compared to the thermotropic bulk behavior. The orientational and positional order of the confined liquid evolves continuously at the paranematic-to-nematic and sizeably broadened at the nematic-to-smectic order transition, resp., in contrast to the discontinuous and well-defined second-order character of the bulk transitions. A Landau-de-Gennes analysis reveals identical strengths of the nematic and smectic ordering fields (imposed by the walls) and indicates that the smectic order is more affected by quenched disorder (originating in channel tortuosity and roughness) than the nematic transition.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figure

    R2D2 - a symmetric measurement of reactor neutrinos free of systematical errors

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    We discuss a symmetric setup for a reactor neutrino oscillation experiment consisting of two reactors separated by about 1 km, and two symmetrically placed detectors, one close to each reactor. We show that such a configuration allows a determination of sin22θ13\sin^22\theta_{13} which is essentially free of systematical errors, if it is possible to separate the contributions of the two reactors in each detector sufficiently. This can be achieved either by considering data when in an alternating way only one reactor is running or by directional sensitivity obtained from the neutron displacement in the detector.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, clarifications added, some numbers in relation with the neutron displacement corrected, version to appear in JHE

    Knudsen Diffusion in Silicon Nanochannels

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    Measurements on helium and argon gas flow through an array of parallel, linear channels of 12 nm diameter and 200 micrometer length in a single crystalline silicon membrane reveal a Knudsen diffusion type transport from 10^2 to 10^7 in Knudsen number Kn. The classic scaling prediction for the transport diffusion coefficient on temperature and mass of diffusing species,D_He ~ sqrt(T), is confirmed over a T range from 40 K to 300 K for He and for the ratio of D_He/D_Ar ~ sqrt(m_Ar/m_He). Deviations of the channels from a cylindrical form, resolved with transmission electron microscopy down to subnanometer scales, quantitatively account for a reduced diffusivity as compared to Knudsen diffusion in ideal tubular channels. The membrane permeation experiments are described over 10 orders of magnitude in Kn, encompassing the transition flow regime, by the unified flow model of Beskok and Karniadakis.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Probing Sterile Neutrino Parameters with Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO

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    In this work, we present a realistic analysis of the potential of the present-day reactor experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO for probing the existence of sterile neutrinos. We present exclusion regions for sterile oscillation parameters for each of these experiments, using simulations with realistic estimates of systematic errors and detector resolutions, and compare the sterile parameter sensitivity regions we obtain with the existing bounds from other reactor experiments. We find that these experimental set-ups give significant bounds on the parameter \Theta_{ee} especially in the low sterile oscillation region 0.01 < \Delta m_{41}^2 < 0.05 eV^2. These bounds can add to our understanding of the sterile neutrino sector since there is still a tension in the allowed regions from different experiments for sterile parameters.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figure

    Topologically non-trivial quantum layers

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    Given a complete non-compact surface embedded in R^3, we consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in a layer of constant width about the surface. Using an intrinsic approach to the layer geometry, we generalise the spectral results of an original paper by Duclos et al. to the situation when the surface does not possess poles. This enables us to consider topologically more complicated layers and state new spectral results. In particular, we are interested in layers built over surfaces with handles or several cylindrically symmetric ends. We also discuss more general regions obtained by compact deformations of certain layers.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figure

    Electroweak phase transition in technicolor

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    Several phenomenologically viable walking technicolor models have been proposed recently. I demonstrate that these models can have first order electroweak phase transitions, which are sufficiently strong for electroweak baryogenesis. Strong dynamics can also lead to several separate transitions at the electroweak scale, with the possibility of a temporary restoration and an extra breaking of the electroweak symmetry. First order phase transitions will produce gravitational waves, which may be detectable at future experiments.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures. Talk at PASCOS 2010 conference, Valencia, 19-23 July 201

    Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions from a Triplet Seesaw Model

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    We investigate non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs) in the triplet seesaw model featuring non-trivial correlations between NSI parameters and neutrino masses and mixing parameters. We show that sizable NSIs can be generated as a consequence of a nearly degenerate neutrino mass spectrum. Thus, these NSIs could lead to quite significant signals of lepton flavor violating decays such as \mu^- \to e^- \nu_e anti\nu_\mu and \mu^+ \to e^+ anti\nu_e \nu_\mu at a future neutrino factory, effects adding to the uncertainty in determination of the Earth matter density profile, as well as characteristic patterns of the doubly charged Higgs decays observable at the Large Hadron Collider.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures and 1 table; v2: minor corrections, Sect. IV revise
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