41 research outputs found

    Production status and research advancement on root rot disease of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in China

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    China is the largest producer of faba bean with a total harvested area of 8.11×105 ha and a total production of 1.69 ×106 tons (dry beans) in 2020, accounting for 30% of the world production. Faba bean is grown in China for both fresh pods and dry seed. East China cultivates large seed cultivars for food processing and fresh vegetables, while northwestern and southwestern China grow cultivars for dry seeds, with an increased production of fresh green pods. Most of the faba bean is consumed domestically, with limited exports. The absence of unified quality control measures and simple traditional cultivation practices contributes to the lower competitiveness of the faba bean industry in international markets. Recently, new cultivation methods have emerged with improved weed control, as well as better water and drainage management, resulting in higher quality and income for producers. Root rot disease in faba bean is caused by multiple pathogens, including Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., and Pythium spp. Fusarium spp. is the most prevalent species causing root rot in faba bean crops and is responsible for severe yield loss, with different species causing the disease in different regions in China. The yield loss ranges from 5% to 30%, up to 100% in severely infected fields. The management of faba bean root rot disease in China involves a combination of physical, chemical, and bio-control methods, including intercropping with non-host crops, applying rational nitrogen, and treating seeds with chemical or bio-seed treatments. However, the effectiveness of these methods is limited due to the high cost, the broad host range of the pathogens, and potential negative impacts on the environment and non-targeted soil organisms. Intercropping is the most widely utilized and economically friendly control method to date. This review provides an overview of the current status of faba bean production in China, the challenges faced by the industry due to root rot disease, and the progress in identifying and managing this disease. This information is critical for developing integrated management strategies to effectively control root rot in faba bean cultivation and facilitating the high-quality development of the faba bean industry

    Comprehensive identification and characterization of lncRNAs and circRNAs reveal potential brown planthopper-responsive ceRNA networks in rice

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    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) is one of the most destructive pests of rice. Non-coding RNA plays an important regulatory role in various biological processes. However, comprehensive identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) in BPH-infested rice have not been performed. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of lncRNAs and circRNAs in BPH6-transgenic (resistant, BPH6G) and Nipponbare (susceptible, NIP) rice plants before and after BPH feeding (early and late stage) via deep RNA-sequencing. A total of 310 lncRNAs and 129 circRNAs were found to be differentially expressed. To reveal the different responses of resistant and susceptible rice to BPH herbivory, the potential functions of these lncRNAs and circRNAs as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were predicted and investigated using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. Dual-luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR1846c and miR530 were targeted by the lncRNAs XLOC_042442 and XLOC_028297, respectively. In responsive to BPH infestation, 39 lncRNAs and 21 circRNAs were predicted to combine with 133 common miRNAs and compete for miRNA binding sites with 834 mRNAs. These mRNAs predictably participated in cell wall organization or biogenesis, developmental growth, single-organism cellular process, and the response to stress. This study comprehensively identified and characterized lncRNAs and circRNAs, and integrated their potential ceRNA functions, to reveal the rice BPH-resistance network. These results lay a foundation for further study on the functions of lncRNAs and circRNAs in the rice-BPH interaction, and enriched our understanding of the BPH-resistance response in rice

    Experimental validation and fracture properties analysis on wedge splitting concrete specimens with different initial seam-height ratios

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    AbstractIn order to study the fracture properties of non-standard concrete wedge splitting tensile specimens with different initial seam-height ratios and the impact on concrete fracture toughness based on aggregates cohesive force, five groups non-standard concrete wedge splitting specimens with different initial seam height ratios as 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35 and 0.4 were designed and constructed for the experiment. Based on double-K fracture model and fictitious crack model, a new fracture toughness calculation model for non-standard concrete wedge splitting tensile specimen with different initial seam height ratios was built. The results showed that: the value of initial cracking load Pini and unstable fracture load Pun decreased gradually with the increase of specimens’ initial seam height ratio. With the increase of seam height ratios, the value of the critical effective crack length ac showed a linearly increasing trend, but the subcritical crack propagation length Δac showed a decrease trend. The unstable fracture toughness KunIC and the cohesive toughness KcIC were affected by seam height ratios, decreased with initial seam height ratios increasing, and the initial fracture toughness KiniIC was independent of it that could be treated as material constant. When calculating the initial fracture toughness KiniIC, the model in this paper could eliminate the errors caused at the moment of determining initial cracking load Pini, which proved its advantage. For the specimens with smaller initial seam height ratio, its fracture features was influenced by maximum tension stress and showed some shearing failure

    A Simplified Computational Strategy Focused on Resin Damage to Study Matrix Cracking of The Cross-Ply Laminates Under Uniaxial Tension Load

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    Transverse cracking is probably the first and most dominant mode of damage in composite materials. In this paper, transverse cracking of cross-ply [02/90n]s (n = 2,3,4) laminates under uniaxial tension load was studied by means of experimental and numerical methods. In the numerical simulations, a simplified computational strategy only focusing on the damage of the resin was proposed and the mechanical response of the cracking cross-ply laminates was studied by finite element analysis of multi-scale representative volume elements (RVEs). In the RVEs, the longitudinal 0° plies were represented by macro-scale, homogeneous, orthotropic elastic solids while the 90° plies were modeled by the discrete fibers and the surrounding matrix resin in micro-scale. Based on researching the critical longitudinal mechanical strain ε x which initiates the cracks, the in-situ transverse ply strength and the stiffness degradation of the transverse plies, the simplified computational strategy proposed was proven correct. In addition, the crack initiation is sensitive to residual stress. Higher process-induced residual stress levels are dangerous to laminates, leading to early crack initiation

    Digital Marketing and Business Performance of Selected Micro-Enterprises in China

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    Determining the Impact of Digital Marketing on Selected Micro-Enterprises on Business Performance is the study's main challenge. Descriptive-correlational research designs, according to Quaranta (2017), characterize the variables and the inherent relationships that exist between and among them. It measures two or more relevant variables without modification. Consequently, in order to characterize the relationship between variables and ascertain the impact of digital marketing on the performance of chosen microenterprises, the study will employ a descriptive correlational approach. Instead of increased market share, higher product demand, new market acquisition, or higher prices, respondents felt that they do better in more customer acquisition, profitability, sales, and revenue

    Achieving High Performance Molecular Rectification through Fast Screening Alkanethiol Carboxylate-Metal Complexes Electro-Active Unites

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    Achieving high rectifying performance of molecular scale diode devices through synthetic chemistry and device construction remain a formidable challenge due to the complexity of the charge transport process and the device structure. We demonstrated here high-performance molecular rectification realized in self-assembled monolayer (SAM) based device by low-cost and fast screening the electroactive units. SAMs of commercial available carboxylate terminated alkane thiols on gold substrate, coordinated with a variety of metal ions, structures denoting as Au-S-(CH2)n-1COO-Mm+ (Cn+Mm+), where n=11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18 and Mm+=Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, were prepared and junctions were measured using a eutectic indiumgallium alloy top contact (EGaIn). The C18+Ca2+ and C18+Zn2+ junctions were found to afford a record high rectification ratio (RR) of 756 at ±1.5 V. Theoretical analysis based on single level tunneling model shows that optimized combination of the asymmetry voltage division, energy barrier and the coupling of carboxylate-metal complex with electrode. Our method described here represent a general strategy for fast, cheap and effective exploration of the metal complex chemical space for high-performance molecular diodes devices

    Geochronology of the Dahongshan Group

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    Mesoscale nanoparticles encapsulated with emodin for targeting antifibrosis in animal models

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    The aim of this study is to explore the kidney-targeting capability of mesoscale nanoparticles (MNPs)-emodin (Em-MNPs) and its potential antifibrosis in the animal model. First, MNPs and Em-MNPs were synthesized via nanoprecipitation method, and their diameters were both ∼400 nm with the uniform size. The entrapment efficiency of MNPs was 45.1% when adding emodin at the concentration of 12 mg/mL. Moreover, cytotoxicity assay showed that Em-MNPs presented excellent biocompatibility in rat proximal tubular cells. Cellular uptake assay demonstrated that Em-MNPs had high-efficiency uptake, especially in the cytoplasm. Ex vivo organ fluorescence imaging revealed that Em-MNPs possessed specific kidney-targeting ability with relative long retention time in the kidney (∼24 h). In the renal unilateral ureteral obstruction model, Em-MNPs treatment could significantly alleviate kidney tubule injury and reduce extracellular matrix deposition compared with free MNPs. Herein, Em-MNPs with specific kidney-targeting and preferable antifibrosis effects in animal model may pave an avenue for treating renal diseases

    MINERALOGICAL EVOLUTION OF THE PALEOGENE FORMATIONS IN THE KYZYLTOKOY BASIN, KYRGYZSTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF GLAUCONITE

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    Although several hypotheses for the formation of glauconite have been proposed, the sedimentary environment and mechanism of glauconitization are still poorly understood. In this contribution, the mineralogy and chemical compositions of sediments from Paleogene formations (Fms) in the Kyzyltokoy basin (Kyrgyzstan) were examined to better understand glauconitization processes. The samples were analyzed using microscopic petrography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Interlayered diatomite-argillaceous rocks were newly identified within the diatomites of the Isfara Fm. Glauconite from the Kyzyltokoy basin displayed two stages of maturity: 1) early stage (nascent) glauconite grains composed of similar to 3.5% K2O and similar to 8% FeOT; 2) late-stage (highly evolved) glauconite grains composed of 7-9% K2O and similar to 27% FeOT. The early stage glauconite grains in the Hanabad Fm green clay (green clay is clay with a greenish color) indicate interruptions in glauconitization processes, whereas the (highly) evolved glauconite grains show a completed glauconitization process along the contact between the Hanabad and Sumsar Fms. Hematite was detected in the red clay (clay with reddish color) of the Sumsar Fm and probably formed by glauconite disintegration. Accordingly, the Paleogene Fms depositional conditions were of three types: 1) beginning of glauconitization with interruptions, 2) completion of glauconitization, and 3) glauconite disintegration. Glauconitization in the Kyzyltokoy basin, thus, likely occurred via a combination of dissolution, precipitation, and recrystallization processes
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