598 research outputs found

    A Calibration Bound for the M-Theory Fivebrane

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    We construct a covariant bound on the energy-momentum of the M-fivebrane which is saturated by all supersymmetric configurations. This leads to a generalised notion of a calibrated geometry for M-fivebranes when the worldvolume gauge field is non-zero. The generalisation relevant for Dp-branes is also given.Comment: 9 pages, LaTeX2e, uses vmargin.sty. Typos corrected, a reference and a new discussion on conserved charges added. v4: A typo in the expression for the D-fourbrane energy correcte

    On the Energy Momentum Tensor of the M-Theory Fivebrane

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    We construct the energy momentum tensor for the bosonic fields of the covariant formulation of the M-theory fivebrane within that formalism. We then obtain the energy for various solitonic solutions of the fivebrane equations of motion.Comment: 12 pages, LaTeX2e, uses vmargin.sty and amstex.st

    CAREER: Location-Aware Social Science for Adaptation: Modeling Dynamic Patterns in Public Perceptions and Behavior

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    Utahns are Becoming More Likely to Say Human-Caused Climate Change is Happening

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    Scientists who study the earth’s climate overwhelmingly agree that human activities are causing rapid change1 . Most Americans also agree that global warming is happening (74%) and caused by humans (61%)2 . However, the same research finds that about one in eight (12%) of Americans do not think global warming is happening. This indicates that despite scientific consensus, some Americans remain skeptical about whether climate change is real and if humans are the cause

    Public Perceptions of the Health Risks of Extreme Heat Across US States, Counties, and Neighborhoods

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    Extreme heat is the leading weather-related cause of death in the United States. Many individuals, however, fail to perceive this risk, which will be exacerbated by global warming. Given that awareness of one’s physical and social vulnerability is a critical precursor to preparedness for extreme weather events, understanding Americans’ perceptions of heat risk and their geographic variability is essential for promoting adaptive behaviors during heat waves. Using a large original survey dataset of 9,217 respondents, we create and validate a model of Americans’ perceived risk to their health from extreme heat in all 50 US states, 3,142 counties, and 72,429 populated census tracts. States in warm climates (e.g., Texas, Nevada, and Hawaii) have some of the highest heat-risk perceptions, yet states in cooler climates often face greater health risks from heat. Likewise, places with older populations who have increased vulnerability to health effects of heat tend to have lower risk perceptions, putting them at even greater risk since lack of awareness is a barrier to adaptive responses. Poorer neighborhoods and those with larger minority populations generally have higher risk perceptions than wealthier neighborhoods with more white residents, consistent with vulnerability differences across these populations. Comprehensive models of extreme weather risks, exposure, and effects should take individual perceptions, which motivate behavior, into account. Understanding risk perceptions at fine spatial scales can also support targeting of communication and education initiatives to where heat adaptation efforts are most needed

    The Influence of Political Ideology and Socioeconomic Vulnerability on Perceived Health Risks of Heat Waves in the Context of Climate Change

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    Vulnerability and resilience to extreme weather hazards are a function of diverse physical, social, and psychological factors. Previous research has focused on individual factors that influence public perceptions of hazards, such as politics, ideology, and cultural worldviews, as well as on socioeconomic and demographic factors that affect geographically based vulnerability, environmental justice, and community resilience. Few studies have investigated individual socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differences in public risk perceptions of the health hazards associated with extreme heat events, which are now increasing due to climate change. This study uses multilevel statistical modeling to investigate individual- and geographic-level (e.g., census tract level and regional) social, economic, and biophysical influences on public perceptions of the adverse health impacts associated with heat waves. Political orientation and climate change beliefs are the strongest predictors of heat wave health risk perceptions; household income also has a relatively strong and consistent effect. Contextual socioeconomic vulnerability, measured with a social vulnerability index at the census tract level, also significantly affects heat wave risk perceptions. The strong influence of political orientation and climate beliefs on perceptions of adverse health impacts from heat waves suggests that ideological predispositions can increase vulnerability to climate change

    How Will Climate Change Shape Climate Opinion?

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    As climate change intensifies, global publics will experience more unusual weather and extreme weather events. How will individual experiences with these weather trends shape climate change beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors? In this article, we review 73 papers that have studied the relationship between climate change experiences and public opinion. Overall, we find mixed evidence that weather shapes climate opinions. Although there is some support for a weak effect of local temperature and extreme weather events on climate opinion, the heterogeneity of independent variables, dependent variables, study populations, and research designs complicate systematic comparison. To advance research on this critical topic, we suggest that future studies pay careful attention to differences between self-reported and objective weather data, causal identification, and the presence of spatial autocorrelation in weather and climate data. Refining research designs and methods in future studies will help us understand the discrepancies in results, and allow better detection of effects, which have important practical implications for climate communication. As the global population increasingly experiences weather conditions outside the range of historical experience, researchers, communicators, and policymakers need to understand how these experiences shape-and are shaped by-public opinions and behaviors
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