70 research outputs found


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    A discrete choice model of 1991-96 trawl groundfish fishery participation in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands region is developed and estimated. The model fits well, with strong risk and seasonal effects. Notably, the model uses routinely-collected data, suggesting this type of analysis can be a regular part of the management process.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,


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    Linear programming-based models of individual multispecies groundfish operations in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands area are developed and applied to the question of determining efficient bycatches. The policy tool is halibut quotas, which restrict the bycatch of halibut and also induce changes in the target species catch composition and bycatch of other prohibited species. Efficient quotas can be interpolated from the locus of shadow values for discrete halibut quotas relative to the opportunity cost of prohibited species bycatch induced by the policy-set quotas on halibut bycatch. Because of information limitations intrinsic to fisheries management, the efficient halibut quotas are considered in the context of ranges of marginal value and marginal opportunity cost developed using short- and long-run groundfish fishery models and standard error estimates of opportunity cost.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Variation in renal responses to exercise in the heat with progressive acclimatisation

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    Objectives To investigate changes in renal status from exercise in the heat with acclimatisation and to evaluate surrogates markers of Acute Kidney Injury. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Methods 20 male volunteers performed 60 min standardised exercise in the heat, at baseline and on four subsequent occasions during a 23-day acclimatisation regimen. Blood was sampled before and after exercise for serum creatinine, copeptin, interleukin-6, normetanephrine and cortisol. Fractional excretion of sodium was calculated for corresponding urine samples. Ratings of Perceived Exertion were reported every 5 min during exercise. Acute Kidney Injury was defined as serum creatinine rise ≥26.5 μmol L−1 or fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate >25%. Predictive values of each candidate marker for developing Acute Kidney Injury were determined by ROC analysis. Results From baseline to Day 23, serum creatinine did not vary at rest, but showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction post-exercise (120 [102, 139] versus 102 [91, 112] μmol L−1). Acute Kidney Injury was common (26/100 exposures) and occurred most frequently in the unacclimatised state. Log-normalised fractional excretion of sodium showed a significant interaction (exercise by acclimatization day), with post-exercise values tending to rise with acclimatisation. Ratings of Perceived Exertion predicted AKI (AUC 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.88), performing at least as well as biochemical markers. Conclusions Heat acclimatization is associated with reduced markers of renal stress and AKI incidence, perhaps due to improved regional perfusion. Acclimatisation and monitoring Ratings of Perceived Exertion are practical, non-invasive measures that could help to reduce renal injury from exercise in the heat

    Role of Adjuvant Multimodality Therapy After Curative-Intent Resection of Ampullary Carcinoma

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    Importance: Ampullary adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises within the duodenal ampullary complex. The role of adjuvant therapy (AT) in the treatment of ampullary adenocarcinoma has not been clearly defined. Objective: To determine if long-term survival after curative-intent resection of ampullary adenocarcinoma may be improved by selection of patients for AT directed by histologic subtype. Design, setting, and participants: This multinational, retrospective cohort study was conducted at 12 institutions from April 1, 2000, to July 31, 2017, among 357 patients with resected, nonmetastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma receiving surgery alone or AT. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify covariates associated with overall survival. The surgery alone and AT cohorts were matched 1:1 by propensity scores based on the likelihood of receiving AT or by survival hazard from Cox modeling. Overall survival was compared with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Exposures: Adjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil- or gemcitabine-based) with or without radiotherapy. Main outcomes and measures: Overall survival. Results: A total of 357 patients (156 women and 201 men; median age, 65.8 years [interquartile range, 58-74 years]) underwent curative-intent resection of ampullary adenocarcinoma. Patients with intestinal subtype had a longer median overall survival compared with those with pancreatobiliary subtype (77 vs 54 months; P = .05). Histologic subtype was not associated with AT administration (intestinal, 52.9% [101 of 191]; and pancreatobiliary, 59.5% [78 of 131]; P = .24). Patients with pancreatobiliary histologic subtype most commonly received gemcitabine-based regimens (71.0% [22 of 31]) or combinations of gemcitabine and fluorouracil (12.9% [4 of 31]), whereas treatment of those with intestinal histologic subtype was more varied (fluorouracil, 50.0% [17 of 34]; gemcitabine, 44.1% [15 of 34]; P = .01). In the propensity score-matched cohort, AT was not associated with a survival benefit for either histologic subtype (intestinal: hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.67-2.16; P = .53; pancreatobiliary: hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.66-2.76; P = .41). Conclusions and relevance: Adjuvant therapy was more frequently used in patients with poor prognostic factors but was not associated with demonstrable improvements in survival, regardless of tumor histologic subtype. The value of a multimodality regimen remains poorly defined

    Palaeoenvironmental control on distribution of crinoids in the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) of England and France

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    Bulk sampling of a number of different marine and marginal marine lithofacies in the British Bathonian has allowed us to assess the palaeoenvironmental distribution of crinoids for the first time. Although remains are largely fragmentary, many species have been identified by comparison with articulated specimens from elsewhere, whilst the large and unbiased sample sizes allowed assessment of relative proportions of different taxa. Results indicate that distribution of crinoids well corresponds to particular facies. Ossicles of Chariocrinus and Balanocrinus dominate in deeper-water and lower-energy facies,with the former extending further into shallower-water facies than the latter. Isocrinus dominates in shallower water carbonate facies, accompanied by rarer comatulids, and was also present in the more marine parts of lagoons. Pentacrinites remains are abundant in very high-energy oolite shoal lithofacies. The presence of millericrinids within one, partly allochthonous lithofacies suggests the presence of an otherwise unknown hard substrate from which they have been transported. These results are compared to crinoid assemblages from other Mesozoic localities, and it is evident that the same morphological ad-aptations are present within crinoids from similar lithofacies throughout the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous

    Optics and Quantum Electronics

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    Contains table of contents for Section 3 and reports on eighteen research projects.Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/MIT Lincoln Laboratory Contract MDA972-92-J-1038Joint Services Electronics Program Grant DAAH04-95-1-0038National Science Foundation Grant ECS 94-23737U.S. Air Force - Office of Scientific Research Contract F49620-95-1-0221U.S. Navy - Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-95-1-0715MIT Center for Material Science and EngineeringNational Center for Integrated Photonics Technology Contract DMR 94-00334National Center for Integrated Photonics TechnologyU.S. Navy - Office of Naval Research (MFEL) Contract N00014-94-1-0717National Institutes of Health Grant 9-R01-EY11289MIT Lincoln Laboratory Contract BX-5098Electric Power Research Institute Contract RP3170-25ENEC

    Comparative Analysis of Serine/Arginine-Rich Proteins across 27 Eukaryotes: Insights into Sub-Family Classification and Extent of Alternative Splicing

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    Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which include plants, animals, fungi and “basal” eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. Using RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) as a phylogenetic marker, we classified 272 SR genes into robust sub-families. The SR gene family can be split into five major groupings, which can be further separated into 11 distinct sub-families. Most flowering plants have double or nearly double the number of SR genes found in vertebrates. The majority of plant SR genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, in all paralogous SR genes in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and maize, one of the two paralogs is preferentially expressed throughout plant development. We also assessed the extent of AS in SR genes based on a splice graph approach (http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/gmap_SRgenes). AS of SR genes is a widespread phenomenon throughout multiple lineages, with alternative 3′ or 5′ splicing events being the most prominent type of event. However, plant-enriched sub-families have 57%–88% of their SR genes experiencing some type of AS compared to the 40%–54% seen in other sub-families. The SR gene family is pervasive throughout multiple eukaryotic lineages, conserved in sequence and domain organization, but differs in gene number across lineages with an abundance of SR genes in flowering plants. The higher number of alternatively spliced SR genes in plants emphasizes the importance of AS in generating splice variants in these organisms

    What is the Right Ambient Water Quality Tax?

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    This paper presents an extension and empirical application of Segerson's nonpoint pollution control mechanism. Segerson's incentive is designed to eliminate free riding by requiring each polluter to pay the full marginal cost of pollution for ambient water quality worse than a target, or to be subsidized for water quality better than that target. The magnitude of the incentive necessary to achieve a specified target depends on the assumed behavior of farmers: if they collude, a lower incentive level will achieve the same ambient water quality as a higher incentive if farmers act independently. Alternatively, an incentive level designed under the assumption that farmers will act independently will lead to greater abatement and subsidy payments to farmers if they collude. Thus, regulators need to consider how farmers will respond to each other when they calculate an incentive level. An empirical application is made to lettuce ·production in California's Salinas Valley