124 research outputs found

    Evolution and control of the phase competition morphology in a manganite film

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    The competition among different phases in perovskite manganites is pronounced since their energies are very close under the interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. To reveal the roles of underlying interactions, many efforts have been devoted towards directly imaging phase transitions at microscopic scales. Here we show images of the charge-ordered insulator (COI) phase transition from a pure ferromagnetic metal with reducing field or increasing temperature in a strained phase-separated manganite film, using a home-built magnetic force microscope. Compared with the COI melting transition, this reverse transition is sharp, cooperative and martensitic-like with astonishingly unique yet diverse morphologies. The COI domains show variable-dimensional growth at different temperatures and their distribution can illustrate the delicate balance of the underlying interactions in manganites. Our findings also display how phase domain engineering is possible and how the phase competition can be tuned in a controllable manner.Comment: Published versio

    Inflammation-related proteomics demonstrate landscape of fracture blister fluid in patients with acute compartment syndrome

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    BackgroundBlisters are tense vesicles or bullae that arise on swollen skin and are found in a wide range of injuries. As a complication of fracture, fracture blisters are considered soft tissue injuries, which often lead to adverse effects such as prolonged preoperative waiting time and increased risk of surgical site infection. However, our previous study found that in patients with acute compartment syndrome, fracture blisters may be a form of compartment pressure release, but the specific mechanism has not been revealed. Here, we mapped out the proteomic landscape of fracture blister fluid for the first time and compared its expression profile to cupping and burn blisters.MethodsFirst, fluid samples were collected from 15 patients with fracture blisters, 7 patients with cupping blisters, and 9 patients with burn blisters. Then, the expression levels of 92 inflammatory proteins were measured using the Olink Target 96 Inflammation panel. Protein profiles were compared across the three groups using Differential Protein Expression Analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA).ResultsFracture blisters had significantly higher levels of 50 proteins in comparison to cupping and 26 proteins in comparison to burn blisters. Notably, PCA showed fracture blisters closely resembled the protein expression profile of burn blisters but were distinct from the protein expression profile of cupping blisters.ConclusionOur study provides the first characterization of fracture blister fluid using proteomics, which provides a valuable reference for further analysis of the difference between blisters caused by fractures and those caused by other pathogenic factors. This compendium of proteomic data provides valuable insights and a rich resource to better understand fracture blisters

    Single-cell RNA-seq reveals cellular heterogeneity from deep fascia in patients with acute compartment syndrome

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    IntroductionHigh stress in the compartment surrounded by the deep fascia can cause acute compartment syndrome (ACS) that may result in necrosis of the limbs. The study aims to investigate the cellular heterogeneity of the deep fascia in ACS patients by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq).MethodsWe collected deep fascia samples from patients with ACS (high-stress group, HG, n=3) and patients receiving thigh amputation due to osteosarcoma (normal-stress group, NG, n=3). We utilized ultrasound and scanning electron microscopy to observe the morphologic change of the deep fascia, used multiplex staining and multispectral imaging to explore immune cell infiltration, and applied scRNA-seq to investigate the cellular heterogeneity of the deep fascia and to identify differentially expressed genes.ResultsNotably, we identified GZMK+interferon-act CD4 central memory T cells as a specific high-stress compartment subcluster expressing interferon-related genes. Additionally, the changes in the proportions of inflammation-related subclusters, such as the increased proportion of M2 macrophages and decreased proportion of M1 macrophages, may play crucial roles in the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory in the development of ACS. Furthermore, we found that heat shock protein genes were highly expressed but metal ion-related genes (S100 family and metallothionein family) were down-regulated in various subpopulations under high stress.ConclusionsWe identified a high stress-specific subcluster and variations in immune cells and fibroblast subclusters, as well as their differentially expressed genes, in ACS patients. Our findings reveal the functions of the deep fascia in the pathophysiology of ACS, providing new approaches for its treatment and prevention

    Genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening for drug resistance in tumors

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    Genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) screening is a simple screening method for locating loci under specific conditions, and it has been utilized in tumor drug resistance research for finding potential drug resistance-associated genes. This screening strategy has significant implications for further treatment of malignancies with acquired drug resistance. In recent years, studies involving genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening have gradually increased. Here we review the recent application of genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening for drug resistance, involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitors, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi), alkylating agents, mitotic inhibitors, antimetabolites, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI). We summarize drug resistance pathways such as the KEAP1/Nrf2 pathway MAPK pathway, and NF-κB pathway. Also, we analyze the limitations and conditions for the application of genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screening techniques
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