3,654 research outputs found

    Measurement of neutrino oscillation with KamLAND: Evidence of spectral distortion

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    We present results of a study of neutrino oscillation based on a 766 ton/year exposure of KamLAND to reactor antineutrinos. We observe 258 v_e candidate events with energies above 3.4 MeV compared to 365.2±23.7 events expected in the absence of neutrino oscillation. Accounting for 17.8±7.3 expected background events, the statistical significance for reactor v_e over bar (e) disappearance is 99.998%. The observed energy spectrum disagrees with the expected spectral shape in the absence of neutrino oscillation at 99.6% significance and prefers the distortion expected from v_e oscillation effects. A two-neutrino oscillation analysis of the KamLAND data gives Δm^2=7.9_(-0.5)^(+0.6)x10^(-5) eV^2. A global analysis of data from KamLAND and solar-neutrino experiments yields Δm^2=7.9_(-0.5)^(+0.6)x10^(-5) eV^2 and tan^2θ=0.40_(-0.07)^(+0.10), the most precise determination to date

    Systematic limits on sin^2{2theta_{13}} in neutrino oscillation experiments with multi-reactors

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    Sensitivities to sin^2{2theta_{13}} without statistical errors (``systematic limit'') are investigated in neutrino oscillation experiments with multiple reactors. Using an analytical approach, we show that the systematic limit on sin^2{2theta_{13}} is dominated by the uncorrelated systematic error sigma_u of the detector. Even in an experiment with multi-detectors and multi-reactors, it turns out that most of the systematic errors including the one due to the nature of multiple sources is canceled as in the case with a single reactor plus two detectors, if the near detectors are placed suitably. The case of the KASKA plan (7 reactors and 3 detectors) is investigated in detail, and it is explicitly shown that it does not suffer from the extra uncertainty due to multiple reactors.Comment: 26 pages, 10 eps-files, revtex

    High Sensitivity Search for v_e’s from the Sun and Other Sources at KamLAND

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    Data corresponding to a KamLAND detector exposure of 0.28 kton yr has been used to search for ν̅ _e’s in the energy range 8.3 < E_(ν̅e) < 14.8  MeV. No candidates were found for an expected background of 1.1±0.4 events. This result can be used to obtain a limit on ν̅_e fluxes of any origin. Assuming that all ν̅_e flux has its origin in the Sun and has the characteristic ^8B solar ν_e energy spectrum, we obtain an upper limit of 3.7×10^2  cm^(-2) ^(s-1) (90% C.L.) on the ν̅_e flux. We interpret this limit, corresponding to 2.8×10^(-4) of the standard solar model ^8B ν_e flux, in the framework of spin-flavor precession and neutrino decay models

    Systematic limits on sin22theta13 in neutrino oscillation experiments with multireactors

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    Sensitivities to sin22theta13 without statistical errors ("systematic limit") are investigated in neutrino oscillation experiments with multiple reactors. Using an analytical approach, we show that the systematic limit on sin22theta13 is dominated by the uncorrelated systematic error sigmau of the detector. Even in an experiment with multidetectors and multireactors, it turns out that most of the systematic errors including the one due to the nature of multiple sources is canceled as in the case with a single reactor plus two detectors, if the near detectors are placed suitably. The case of the KASKA plan (7 reactors and 3 detectors) is investigated in detail, and it is explicitly shown that it does not suffer from the extra uncertainty due to multiple reactors

    Muon Simulations for Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND and CHOOZ

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    Muon backgrounds at Super-Kamiokande, KamLAND and CHOOZ are calculated using MUSIC. A modified version of the Gaisser sea level muon distribution and a well-tested Monte Carlo integration method are introduced. Average muon energy, flux and rate are tabulated. Plots of average energy and angular distributions are given. Implications on muon tracker design for future experiments are discussed.Comment: Revtex4 33 pages, 16 figures and 4 table

    Smart Focal Plane Technologies for VLT Instruments

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    As we move towards the era of ELTs, it is timely to think about the future role of the 8-m class telescopes. Under the OPTICON programme, novel technologies have been developed that are intended for use in multi-object and integral-field spectrographs. To date, these have been targeted at instrument concepts for the European ELT, but there are also significant possibilities for their inclusion in new VLT instruments, ensuring the continued success and productivity of these unique telescopes.Comment: 5 pages, to appear in the proceedings of the ESO Workshop "Science with the VLT in the ELT era

    Continuum Model for River Networks

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    The effects of erosion, avalanching and random precipitation are captured in a simple stochastic partial differential equation for modelling the evolution of river networks. Our model leads to a self-organized structured landscape and to abstraction and piracy of the smaller tributaries as the evolution proceeds. An algebraic distribution of the average basin areas and a power law relationship between the drainage basin area and the river length are found.Comment: 9 pages, Revtex 3.0, 7 figures in compressed format using uufiles command, to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett., for an hard copy or problems e-mail to [email protected]
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