366 research outputs found

    Morphological Proxies for Fossoriality, Supplementary Appendices

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    Supplementary Appendices from Hopkins and Davis 2009, Journal of Mammalogy. Appendix I: Taxonomy, ecological data, and morphological characters from 123 species representing 15 of the 29 orders of extant mammals, used for discriminant analysis. Appendix II: Eigenvectors from discriminant analyses

    The ecology of tadpoles in a temporary pond in the Western Cape with comparisons to other habitats

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    Philosophiae Doctor - PhD (Biodiversity and Conservation Biology)This work centered on the tadpoles in a temporaray pond in the middle of Kenilworth racecourse, Cape Town, South Africa. Trapping was carried out over two wet seasons and five species were found. The racecourse was selected to investigate the tadpole community occupying temporary winter pools. The main focus of this study was the community of tadpoles that occur in the ephemeral ponds in the centre of Kenilworth Racecourse. This study was a very broad insight into tadpole ecology in the Western Cape.South Afric

    From corners to community:exploring medical students’ sense of belonging through co-creation in clinical learning

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    Background: Belonging is critical for the development and wellbeing of medical students. Belonging, particularly within a ‚Äėrelational being‚Äô paradigm, presents a significant challenge for students, especially within clinical learning environments. Co-creation is a learning relationship in which students are actively involved in the education process. It is inherently relational and promotes belonging within higher education environments. Little is known about utilising co-creation in the curriculum, within medical education. The aim of this study was to explore medical students‚Äô experience of co-creation of learning resources within the clinical learning environment.¬†Methods: Following ethical approval, medical students were invited to become co-creators of a learning bulletin resource, within the paediatric acute receiving unit, at a paediatric teaching hospital. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to enable an in-depth exploration of how medical students experienced co-creation within the clinical learning environment. Medical students participated in semi-structured interviews about their experience, which were transcribed verbatim and analysed using IPA. The analysis integrated individual lived experiences into an analytic summary.¬†Results: Nine medical students participated. Three group experiential themes were identified: identity maturation; learning community and workplace integration. The support found within this co-created learning community, along with maturation of their identity, allowed the participants to experience a challenge to their existing worldview. This shift in perspective resulted in them responding and behaving in the workplace in new ways, which enabled them to belong as themselves in the clinical learning environment. These findings were situated within the developmental concept of self-authorship, as well as contributing to a new understanding of how co-creation promoted social integration.¬†Conclusions: Co-creation enabled students to learn in a meaningful way. The relational power of co-creation, can be harnessed to deliver participatory learning experiences, within our increasingly complex healthcare environment, to support the learning, development and integration of doctors of the future.</p

    From corners to community:exploring medical students’ sense of belonging through co-creation in clinical learning

    Get PDF
    Background: Belonging is critical for the development and wellbeing of medical students. Belonging, particularly within a ‚Äėrelational being‚Äô paradigm, presents a significant challenge for students, especially within clinical learning environments. Co-creation is a learning relationship in which students are actively involved in the education process. It is inherently relational and promotes belonging within higher education environments. Little is known about utilising co-creation in the curriculum, within medical education. The aim of this study was to explore medical students‚Äô experience of co-creation of learning resources within the clinical learning environment.¬†Methods: Following ethical approval, medical students were invited to become co-creators of a learning bulletin resource, within the paediatric acute receiving unit, at a paediatric teaching hospital. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to enable an in-depth exploration of how medical students experienced co-creation within the clinical learning environment. Medical students participated in semi-structured interviews about their experience, which were transcribed verbatim and analysed using IPA. The analysis integrated individual lived experiences into an analytic summary.¬†Results: Nine medical students participated. Three group experiential themes were identified: identity maturation; learning community and workplace integration. The support found within this co-created learning community, along with maturation of their identity, allowed the participants to experience a challenge to their existing worldview. This shift in perspective resulted in them responding and behaving in the workplace in new ways, which enabled them to belong as themselves in the clinical learning environment. These findings were situated within the developmental concept of self-authorship, as well as contributing to a new understanding of how co-creation promoted social integration.¬†Conclusions: Co-creation enabled students to learn in a meaningful way. The relational power of co-creation, can be harnessed to deliver participatory learning experiences, within our increasingly complex healthcare environment, to support the learning, development and integration of doctors of the future.</p

    From safety net to trampoline:elevating learning with growth mindset in healthcare simulation

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    The Implicit Theory of Mindset proposes two different mindsets that sit at opposite ends of a spectrum: a fixed mindset versus a growth mindset. With a fixed mindset, an individual believes they are born with a certain amount of an attribute, and so their potential is both pre-determined and static. With a growth mindset, an individual believes their attributes are malleable and can strengthen over time with repeated effort, adaptable learning strategies, and challenge seeking. Adoption of a growth mindset is associated with improved academic success, more effective learning strategies, increased resilience in the face of adversity, and better mental wellbeing. The theoretical underpinning of psychological safety resonates with the Implicit Theory of Mindset as it infers that a significant number of simulation participants have a fixed mindset and are therefore more likely to be fearful of making an error. The simulation community agree that participants need to feel comfortable making errors for simulation to be successful. The key word here is comfortable. Participants feeling comfortable to make errors just scratches the surface of adopting a growth mindset. With a growth mindset, participants see errors as a positive in the simulation experience, an inevitability of the learning process, evidence that they are adequately challenging themselves to improve. Encouraging adoption of a growth mindset in participants is a powerful addition to the establishment of psychological safety because a growth mindset will re-frame participants‚Äô experiences of social comparison from negative to positive and optimize information processing. We propose a novel idea: simulation educators should be explicit in the pre-brief about what a growth mindset is and its associated benefits to encourage its adoption during the simulation activity‚ÄĒa simulation growth mindset intervention. If this is not possible due to time constraints, an online module or article about growth mindset would be appropriate as pre-reading to encourage adoption of a growth mindset in participants. The message is not that a simulation growth mindset intervention should replace the focus on psychological safety but rather that it should be used synergistically to provide the highest quality simulation experience.</p

    Live Fast, Die Young: GMC lifetimes in the FIRE cosmological simulations of Milky Way-mass galaxies

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    We present the first measurement of the lifetimes of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in cosmological simulations at z = 0, using the Latte suite of FIRE-2 simulations of Milky Way (MW) mass galaxies. We track GMCs with total gas mass ‚Č≥10‚ĀĶ M‚äô at high spatial (‚ąľ1 pc), mass (7100 M‚äô), and temporal (1 Myr) resolution. Our simulated GMCs are consistent with the distribution of masses for massive GMCs in the MW and nearby galaxies. We find GMC lifetimes of 5‚Äď7 Myr, or 1‚Äď2 freefall times, on average, with less than 2 per‚ÄČcent of clouds living longer than 20 Myr. We find decreasing GMC lifetimes with increasing virial parameter, and weakly increasing GMC lifetimes with galactocentric radius, implying that environment affects the evolutionary cycle of GMCs. However, our GMC lifetimes show no systematic dependence on GMC mass or amount of star formation. These results are broadly consistent with inferences from the literature and provide an initial investigation into ultimately understanding the physical processes that govern GMC lifetimes in a cosmological setting

    The Diagnosis, Clinical Course, Treatment, and Prevention of the Rabies Virus

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    Rabies, despite available vaccines, causes approximately 55,000 deaths every year. Diagnosing relies on noting physical behaviors such as hydrophobia, vomiting, fever, behavior changes, paralysis, and consciousness, as well as, using several methodologies to molecularly detect the presence of the virus. RABV often enters through a bite wound given that it is transmissible through saliva. Infection spreads from muscle fibers into the peripheral nervous system traveling to the central nervous system. Infection of the central nervous system can lead to encephalitis (furious rabies) or acute flaccid paralysis (paralytic rabies). Treatment relies heavily on the time of exposure. If the patient is diagnosed prior to being symptomatic, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can be administered. However, once the patient has begun displaying symptoms, therapy success rates sharply decline. Prevention includes vaccinating during both pre- and post-exposures, as well as utilizing Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) to aid impoverished countries in declining their rabies mortality rates

    Blue-enriched Lighting for Older People Living in Care Homes: Effect on Activity, Actigraphic Sleep, Mood and Alertness

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    Objective: Environmental (little outdoor light; low indoor lighting) and age-related physiological factors (reduced light transmission through the ocular lens, reduced mobility) contribute to a light-deprived environment for older people living in care homes. Methods: This study investigates the effect of increasing indoor light levels with blue-enriched white lighting on objective (rest-activity rhythms, performance) and self-reported (mood, sleep, alertness) measures in older people. Eighty residents (69 female), aged 86 ¬Ī 8 yrs (mean ¬Ī SD), participated (MMSE 19 ¬Ī 6). Overhead fluorescent lighting was installed in communal rooms (n=20) of seven care homes. Four weeks of blue-enriched white lighting (17000 K ‚ČÖ 900 lux) were compared with four weeks of control white lighting (4000 K ‚ČÖ 200 lux), separated by three weeks wash-out. Participants completed validated mood and sleep questionnaires, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and wore activity and light monitors (AWL). Rest-activity rhythms were assessed by cosinor, non-parametric circadian rhythm (NPCRA) and actigraphic sleep analysis. Blue-enriched (17000 K) light increased wake time and activity during sleep decreasing actual sleep time, sleep percentage and sleep efficiency (p < 0.05) (actigraphic sleep). Compared to 4000 K lighting, blue-enriched 17000 K lighting significantly (p < 0.05) advanced the timing of participants‚Äô rest-activity rhythm (cosinor), increased daytime and night-time activity (NPCRA), reduced subjective anxiety (HADA) and sleep quality (PSQI). There was no difference between the two light conditions in daytime alertness and performance (PVT). Conclusion: Blue-enriched lighting produced some positive (increased daytime activity, reduced anxiety) and negative (increased night-time activity, reduced sleep efficiency and quality) effects in older people
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