69 research outputs found

    Needs and Research Priorities for Young People with Spinal Cord Lesion or Spina Bifida and Their Caregivers: A National Survey in Switzerland within the PEPSCI Collaboration.

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    The aim of this study was to describe the needs and research priorities of Swiss children/adolescents and young adults (from here, "young people") with spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/D) or spina bifida (SB) and their parents in the health and life domains as part of the international Pan-European Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury (PEPSCI) collaboration. Surveys included queries about the satisfaction, importance, research priorities, quality of life (QoL), and characteristics of the young people. Fifty-three surveys with corresponding parent-proxy reports were collected between April and November 2019. The self-report QoL sum scores from young people with SCI/D and SB were 77% and 73%, respectively. Parent-proxy report QoL sum scores were lower, with 70% scores for parents of young people with SCI/D and 64% scores for parents of young people with SB. "Having fun", "relation to family members", and "physical functioning" were found to be highly important for all young people. "Physical functioning", "prevention of pressure injuries", "general health", and "bowel management" received the highest scores for research priority in at least one of the subgroups. As parents tend to underestimate the QoL of their children and young people prioritized research topics differently, both young peoples' and caregivers' perspectives should be included in the selection of research topics

    Understanding the Impact of Charging Infrastructure on the Consideration to Purchase an Electric Vehicle in California

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    UC-ITS-2031-34Supplemental Material: Survey QuestionsThis research makes explicit and tests an implicit assumption in policies promoting public investment in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure: even people who are not already interested in PEVs see public PEV charging. Data from a survey representing all car-owning households in California are combined with per capita counts of public PEV charging locations and PEV registrations to estimate a structural equation model for two central variables: the extent to which participants have already considered acquiring a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and whether and how many places people see PEV charging. The model controls for socio-economic and demographic measures as well as participants\u2019 awareness, knowledge, and assessments of PEVs

    Exploring the Impact of the Federal Tax Credit on the Decision to Lease or Purchase a PEV in California

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    USDOT Grant 69A3551747114Using a sample of approximately 7,000 California PEV drivers recruited from California Clean Vehicle Rebate Program applicants, two logistic regression models are specified to analyze responses by PEV lessees and purchasers to the question of what they would do in the absence of the federal tax credit. Possible responses include: Purchase/lease the same PEV, switch to a different PEV, switch to a conventional or hybrid (non-plug in) vehicle, or do not acquire a vehicle at all. Several key insights are found; higher discounts from the tax credit increase the probability of lessees indicating they would not lease a PEV at all. For purchasers, in addition to not purchasing any vehicle at all, the probability of purchasing a conventional vehicle, or another PEV also increase. These findings could have implications for California\u2019s ability to reach its ZEV milestones and are important to consider due to recent changes to the US federal tax credit. Our findings indicate that many PEV adopters would likely not adopt their PEV without the tax credit, potentially more so for leased compared to purchased vehicles. There are also unique results for lessees related to the impact of home ownership; renters are more likely than homeowners to lease a conventional vehicle than a PEV in the absence of the tax credit. This finding contributes to the literature which finds homeowners to be more likely to adopt a PEV than renters, emphasizing the importance of access to at-home charging for PEV adoption. These results show how incentives may be more influential for adoption decisions in the PEV lease market is, and the factors which are associated with consumers\u2019 PEV adoption behavior in the absence of the federal tax credit

    Multidimensional Signals and Analytic Flexibility: Estimating Degrees of Freedom in Human-Speech Analyses

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    Recent empirical studies have highlighted the large degree of analytic flexibility in data analysis that can lead to substantially different conclusions based on the same data set. Thus, researchers have expressed their concerns that these researcher degrees of freedom might facilitate bias and can lead to claims that do not stand the test of time. Even greater flexibility is to be expected in fields in which the primary data lend themselves to a variety of possible operationalizations. The multidimensional, temporally extended nature of speech constitutes an ideal testing ground for assessing the variability in analytic approaches, which derives not only from aspects of statistical modeling but also from decisions regarding the quantification of the measured behavior. In this study, we gave the same speech-production data set to 46 teams of researchers and asked them to answer the same research question, resulting in substantial variability in reported effect sizes and their interpretation. Using Bayesian meta-analytic tools, we further found little to no evidence that the observed variability can be explained by analysts’ prior beliefs, expertise, or the perceived quality of their analyses. In light of this idiosyncratic variability, we recommend that researchers more transparently share details of their analysis, strengthen the link between theoretical construct and quantitative system, and calibrate their (un)certainty in their conclusions

    Astrocytes: orchestrating synaptic plasticity?

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    Synaptic plasticity is the capacity of a preexisting connection between two neurons to change in strength as a function of neural activity. Because synaptic plasticity is the major candidate mechanism for learning and memory, the elucidation of its constituting mechanisms is of crucial importance in many aspects of normal and pathological brain function. In particular, a prominent aspect that remains debated is how the plasticity mechanisms, that encompass a broad spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, come to play together in a concerted fashion. Here we review and discuss evidence that pinpoints to a possible non-neuronal, glial candidate for such orchestration: the regulation of synaptic plasticity by astrocytes.Comment: 63 pages, 4 figure

    Multidimensional signals and analytic flexibility: Estimating degrees of freedom in human speech analyses

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    Recent empirical studies have highlighted the large degree of analytic flexibility in data analysis which can lead to substantially different conclusions based on the same data set. Thus, researchers have expressed their concerns that these researcher degrees of freedom might facilitate bias and can lead to claims that do not stand the test of time. Even greater flexibility is to be expected in fields in which the primary data lend themselves to a variety of possible operationalizations. The multidimensional, temporally extended nature of speech constitutes an ideal testing ground for assessing the variability in analytic approaches, which derives not only from aspects of statistical modeling, but also from decisions regarding the quantification of the measured behavior. In the present study, we gave the same speech production data set to 46 teams of researchers and asked them to answer the same research question, resulting insubstantial variability in reported effect sizes and their interpretation. Using Bayesian meta-analytic tools, we further find little to no evidence that the observed variability can be explained by analysts’ prior beliefs, expertise or the perceived quality of their analyses. In light of this idiosyncratic variability, we recommend that researchers more transparently share details of their analysis, strengthen the link between theoretical construct and quantitative system and calibrate their (un)certainty in their conclusions
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