4,126 research outputs found

    Declining Rotation Curve and Brown Dwarf MACHOs

    Get PDF
    If the Galactic rotation speed at the Solar circle is ∼200\sim 200 km s−1^{-1} or smaller, which is supported by several recent studies, the rotation curve of the Galaxy could be declining in the outermost region. Motivated by this, we investigate the effect of such declining rotation curve on the estimate of the MACHO mass and the fractional contribution of the MACHOs to the Galactic dark halo. Using Hernquist and Plummer halo models instead of the standard halo model, we find that the MACHO mass could be significantly smaller than that for the standard halo case. In particular, there exists a certain set of halo parameters for which the MACHO mass is 0.1M⊙M_\odot or less and at the same time the MACHO contribution to the total mass of the halo is almost 100 %. This result indicates that a halo which consists solely of brown dwarfs can be consistent with both of the observed microlensing properties and the constraints from the rotation curve, provided the outer rotation curve is indeed declining.Comment: 8 pages and 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    J-Net Galactic Plane Survey of VLBI Radio Sources for VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA)

    Full text link
    In order to search for new VLBI sources in the Galactic plane that can be used as phase reference sources in differential VLBI, we have conducted 22 GHz observations of radio sources in the Galactic plane using the Japanese VLBI Network (J-Net). We have observed 267 VLBI source candidates selected from existing radio surveys and have detected 93 sources at the signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5. While 42 of the 93 detected sources had already been detected with VLBI at relatively lower frequency (typically 2 to 8 GHz), the remaining 51 are found to be new VLBI sources detected for the first time. These VLBI sources are located within ∣b∣≤5∘|b|\le 5^\circ, and have a large number of Galactic maser sources around them. Thus, they are potential candidates for phase reference sources for VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), which is the first VLBI array dedicated to the phase referencing VLBI astrometry aiming at measuring the parallax and proper motion of maser sources in the whole Galaxy.Comment: to be published in PASJ (2000, Vol.52, No.5), 13 pages and 2 figure

    Micro-Arcsecond Radio Astrometry

    Full text link
    Astrometry provides the foundation for astrophysics. Accurate positions are required for the association of sources detected at different times or wavelengths, and distances are essential to estimate the size, luminosity, mass, and ages of most objects. Very Long Baseline Interferometry at radio wavelengths, with diffraction-limited imaging at sub-milliarcsec resolution, has long held the promise of micro-arcsecond astrometry. However, only in the past decade has this been routinely achieved. Currently, parallaxes for sources across the Milky Way are being measured with ~10 uas accuracy and proper motions of galaxies are being determined with accuracies of ~1 uas/y. The astrophysical applications of these measurements cover many fields, including star formation, evolved stars, stellar and super-massive black holes, Galactic structure, the history and fate of the Local Group, the Hubble constant, and tests of general relativity. This review summarizes the methods used and the astrophysical applications of micro-arcsecond radio astrometry.Comment: To appear in Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014

    Caustic Crossing Microlensing Event by Binary MACHOs and Time Scale Bias

    Get PDF
    Caustic crossing microlensing events provide us a unique opportunity to measure the relative proper motion of the lens to the source, and so those caused by binary MACHOs are of great importance for understanding the structure of the Galactic halo and the nature of MACHOs. The microlensing event 98-SMC-01, occurred in June 1998, is the first event for which the proper motion is ever measured through the caustic crossing, and this event may be caused by binary MACHOs as we argue in this Letter. Motivated by the possible existence of binary MACHOs, we have performed the Monte Carlo simulations of caustic crossing events by binary MACHOs and investigated the properties and detectability of the events. Our calculation shows that typical caustic crossing events have the interval between two caustic crossings (tcct_{\rm cc}) of about 5 days. We argue that with the current strategy of binary event search the proper motions of these typical events are not measurable because of the short time scale. Therefore the proper motion distribution measured from caustic crossing events suffers significantly from {`}time scale bias{'}, which is a bias toward finding long time scale events and hence slowly moving lenses. We predict there are two times more short time scale events (tcc≤10t_{\rm cc}\le 10 days) than long time scale events (tcc≥10t_{\rm cc}\ge 10 days), and propose an hourly monitoring observation instead of the nightly monitoring currently undertaken to detect caustic crossing events by binary MACHOs more efficiently.Comment: 8 pages and 3 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    New effective interaction for pfpf-shell nuclei and its implications for the stability of the NN=ZZ=28 closed core

    Full text link
    The effective interaction GXPF1 for shell-model calculations in the full pfpf shell is tested in detail from various viewpoints such as binding energies, electro-magnetic moments and transitions, and excitation spectra. The semi-magic structure is successfully described for NN or Z=28 nuclei, 53^{53}Mn, 54^{54}Fe, 55^{55}Co and 56,57,58,59^{56,57,58,59}Ni, suggesting the existence of significant core-excitations in low-lying non-yrast states as well as in high-spin yrast states. The results of N=ZN=Z odd-odd nuclei, 54^{54}Co and 58^{58}Cu, also confirm the reliability of GXPF1 interaction in the isospin dependent properties. Studies of shape coexistence suggest an advantage of Monte Carlo Shell Model over conventional calculations in cases where full-space calculations still remain too large to be practical.Comment: 29pages, 26figures, to be published in Physical Review

    The Mass-to-Light Ratio of Binary Galaxies

    Get PDF
    We report on the mass-to-light ratio determination based on a newly selected binary galaxy sample, which includes a large number of pairs whose separations exceed a few hundred kpc. The probability distributions of the projected separation and the velocity difference have been calculated considering the contamination of optical pairs, and the mass-to-light ratio has been determined based on the maximum likelihood method. The best estimate of M/LM/L in the B band for 57 pairs is found to be 28 ∼\sim 36 depending on the orbital parameters and the distribution of optical pairs (solar unit, H0=50H_0=50 km s−1^{-1} Mpc−1^{-1}). The best estimate of M/LM/L for 30 pure spiral pairs is found to be 12 ∼\sim 16. These results are relatively smaller than those obtained in previous studies, but consistent with each other within the errors. Although the number of pairs with large separation is significantly increased compared to previous samples, M/LM/L does not show any tendency of increase, but found to be almost independent of the separation of pairs beyond 100 kpc. The constancy of M/LM/L beyond 100 kpc may indicate that the typical halo size of spiral galaxies is less than ∼100\sim 100 kpc.Comment: 18 pages + 8 figures, to appear in ApJ Vol. 516 (May 10

    Population structure of Pacific yellowfin tuna

    Get PDF
    ENGLISH: The population structure and production of Pacific yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, were examined by studying most of the basic data available on stock assessment, as well as other data, for the period 1965 to 1972. The data were obtained mainly from the Japanese longline fishery in the Pacific Ocean east of about 1200E and from the purse-seine fishery in the eastern Pacific east of about 140oW. Data from genetic studies of subpopulations were not used due to their preliminary nature. It was concluded that the concept of "semi-independent" subpopulations proposed by Kamimura and Honma (1963) and Royce (1964) defines the population structure of Pacific yellowfin. At least three stocks (i.e. western, central and eastern), relatively independent of each other, are thought to exist, but the actual number and location of subpopulations is still unclear. Possible north-south separations, indicated to some extent by genetic studies and tagging, could be neither substantiated nor rejected on the basis of this study. Finally, unless some major change in the fishing technology occurs, it is doubtful if any significant sustainable increase in yellowfin production from the Pacific is possible. The greatest potential for increase, if any, appears to be based on changing the size structure of yellowfin in the catch from the central Pacific. SPANISH: Se examino la estructura de la población y la producción del atún aleta amarilla del Pacifico Thunnus albacares para estudiar la mayoría de los datos básicos que se tenían sobre el avalúo de la población, como también otra información correspondiente al periodo de 1965·1972. Los datos fueron obtenidos principalmente de las pescas palangreros japonesas del Océano Pacifico al este de los 1200 E y de las pescas con redes de cerco del Pacifico oriental, al este de los 140oW. No se emplearon los datos de estudios genéticos de las subpoblaciones porque eran mas bien preliminares. Se concluyo que el concepto propuesto por Kamimura y Honma (1963) y Royce (1964) de subpoblaciones "semiindependientes" define la estructura de la población del aleta amarilla en el Pacifico. Se cree que existen por 10 menos tres existencias (e.d. la occidental, central y oriental), relativamente independientes la una de la otra, pero no se conoce con certeza cuantas subpoblaciones hay y donde se encuentran. La posible separación norte-sur, indicada, hasta cierto punto, por los análisis genéticos y del marcado, no puede ni confirmarse ni rechazarse basados en este estudio. Finalmente, a no ser que ocurra algún gran cambio en la tecnología pesquera es dudoso que sea posible obtener un aumento constante e importante en la producción del aleta amarilla del Pacifico. El potencial mayor de aumento, si es que existe alguno, parece que se basa en el cambio de la estructura de talla en la captura del aleta amarilla del Pacifico central. (PDF contains 169 pages.

    The KCAL VERA 22 GHz calibrator survey

    Full text link
    We observed at 22 GHz with the VLBI array VERA a sample of 1536 sources with correlated flux densities brighter than 200 mJy at 8 GHz. One half of target sources has been detected. The detection limit was around 200 mJy. We derived the correlated flux densities of 877 detected sources in three ranges of projected baseline lengths. The objective of these observations was to determine the suitability of given sources as phase calibrators for dual-beam and phase-referencing observations at high frequencies. Preliminary results indicate that the number of compact extragalactic sources at 22 GHz brighter than a given correlated flux density level is twice less than at 8 GHz.Comment: Accepted for publication by the Astronomical Journal. 6 pages, 3 figures, 3 table. The machine readable catalogue file, kcal_cat.txt can be extracted from the source of this submissio

    Effective interaction for pf-shell nuclei

    Full text link
    An effective interaction is derived for use in the full pf basis. Starting from a realistic G-matrix interaction, 195 two-body matrix elements and 4 single-particle energies are determined by fitting to 699 energy data in the mass range 47 to 66. The derived interaction successfully describes various structures of pf-shell nuclei. As examples, systematics of the energies of the first 2+ states in the Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni isotope chains and energy levels of 56,57,58Ni are presented. The appearance of a new magic number 34 is seen.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Dp-branes, NS5-branes and U-duality from nonabelian (2,0) theory with Lie 3-algebra

    Full text link
    We derive the super Yang-Mills action of Dp-branes on a torus T^{p-4} from the nonabelian (2,0) theory with Lie 3-algebra. Our realization is based on Lie 3-algebra with pairs of Lorentzian metric generators. The resultant theory then has negative norm modes, but it results in a unitary theory by setting VEV's of these modes. This procedure corresponds to the torus compactification, therefore by taking a transformation which is equivalent to T-duality, the Dp-brane action is obtained. We also study type IIA/IIB NS5-brane and Kaluza-Klein monopole systems by taking other VEV assignments. Such various compactifications can be realized in the nonabelian (2,0) theory, since both longitudinal and transverse directions can be compactified, which is different from the BLG theory. We finally discuss U-duality among these branes, and show that most of the moduli parameters in U-duality group are recovered. Especially in D5-brane case, the whole U-duality relation is properly reproduced.Comment: 1+26 page
    • …
    corecore