12 research outputs found

    Data_Sheet_1_Multi-omics analysis on the mechanism of the effect of Isatis leaf on the growth performance of fattening sheep.docx

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    IntroductionThis study evaluated the effects of Isatis Leaf (ISL) on the growth performance, gastrointestinal tissue morphology, rumen and intestinal microbiota, rumen, serum and urine metabolites, and rumen epithelial tissue transcriptome of fattening sheep.MethodsTwelve 3.5-month-old healthy fattening sheep were randomly divided into two groups, each with 6 replicates, and fed with basal diet (CON) and basal diet supplemented with 80 g/kg ISL for 2.5 months. Gastrointestinal tract was collected for histological analysis, rumen fluid and feces were subjected to metagenomic analysis, rumen fluid, serum, and urine for metabolomics analysis, and rumen epithelial tissue for transcriptomics analysis.ResultsThe results showed that in the ISL group, the average daily gain and average daily feed intake of fattening sheep were significantly lower than those of the CON group (P ConclusionIn summary, the addition of ISL to the diet had the effect of increasing rumen ammonia nitrogen levels, regulating gastrointestinal microbiota, promoting body fat metabolism, and enhancing immunity in fattening sheep.</p

    Efficient Reprogramming of Naïve-Like Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Porcine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with a Feeder-Independent and Serum-Free System

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    <div><p>Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells reprogrammed by ectopic expression of transcription factors or small molecule treatment, which resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs). They hold great promise for improving the generation of genetically modified large animals. However, few porcine iPSCs (piPSCs) lines obtained currently can support development of cloned embryos. Here, we generated iPSCs from porcine adipose-derived stem cells (pADSCs), using drug-inducible expression of defined human factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4). Reprogramming of iPSCs from pADSCs was more efficient than from fibroblasts, regardless of using feeder-independent or feeder-dependent manners. By addition of Lif-2i medium containing mouse Lif, CHIR99021 and PD0325901 (Lif-2i), naïve-like piPSCs were obtained under feeder-independent and serum-free conditions. These successfully reprogrammed piPSCs were characterized by short cell cycle intervals, alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining, expression of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, SSEA3 and SSEA4, and normal karyotypes. The resemblance of piPSCs to naïve ESCs was confirmed by their packed dome morphology, growth after single-cell dissociation, Lif-dependency, up-regulation of Stella and Eras, low expression levels of TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and MHC I and activation of both X chromosomes. Full reprogramming of naïve-like piPSCs was evaluated by the significant up-regulation of Lin28, Esrrb, Utf1 and Dppa5, differentiating into cell types of all three germ layers <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Furthermore, nuclear transfer embryos from naïve-like piPSCs could develop to blastocysts with improved quality. Thus, we provided an efficient protocol for generating naïve-like piPSCs from pADSCs in a feeder-independent and serum-free system with controlled regulation of exogenous genes, which may facilitate optimization of culture media and the production of transgenic pigs.</p></div

    Characterization of fully reprogrammed porcine naïve-like iPSCs.

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    <p>(A) Real-time PCR analysis of expression levels of genes associated with fully reprogramming in pADSCs, C4-6 NpiPSCs and C4-30 NpiPSCs. (B) Reverse transcription PCR analysis of differentiation markers for the three germ layers in the EBs. (C) Hematoxylin and eosin staining of naïve-like piPSCs-derived teratoma (C4-30 NpiPSCs), the tumor was differentiated into the tissues of three germ layers, including cuticulated epithelium (a, ectoderm), adipose tissue (b, mesoderm) and gut-like epithelium (c, endoderm). Black arrows and square denote the specific structure of ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm, scale bar = 100 µm.</p

    Evidences of naïve-like state of piPSCs.

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    <p>(A) Morphology of naïve-like piPSCs at phase contrast (a, scale bar = 50 µm) and immunofluorescence (GFP) imaging (b, scale bar = 50 µm). (B) AP staining of C4-6 NpiPSCs, when Lif was present (a, scale bar = 500 µm) and withdrawn (b, scale bar = 500 µm). (C) mRNA levels of MHC I in pADSCs, C4-6 NpiPSCs and C4-30 NpiPSCs. (D) mRNA levels of stella and Eras in pADSCs, C4-6 NpiPSCs and C4-30 NpiPSCs. (E) Immunofluorescence staining of H3K27me3 in pADSCs and naïve-like piPSCs (C4-30 NpiPSCs), nuclei surrounded by squares were magnified (right panels), arrows indicate H3K27me3-positive areas, scale bar = 50 µm.</p

    Characterization of naïve-like piPSCs produced by DOX-inducible system.

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    <p>(A) AP staining of naïve-like piPSCs, scale bar = 50 µm. (B) Pluripotency of naïve-like piPSCs was demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining of Sox2, Nanog, SSEA1, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, scale bar = 100 µm. (C) Real-time PCR analysis of expression level of pluripotency genes in pADSCs, C4-6 NpiPSCs and C4-30 NpiPSCs. (D) DNA methylation analysis of the Nanog promoter in C4-6 NpiPSCs and C4-30 NpiPSCs. (E) Karyotype analysis of naïve-like piPSCs.</p

    NpiPSCs for nuclear transfer.

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    <p>(A) Blastocyst rate of nuclear transfer embryos from NpiPSCs and pADSCs. Blastocyst rate I  =  No. blastocyst/No. cultured embryos (a); Blastocyst rate II  =  No. blastocyst/No. cleaved embryos (b). Different superscripts above the bars denote significant difference (P<0.05). (B) Total cell number of blastocyst from NpiPSCs and pADSCs. (C) Spindle-like morphology of cells 24h after the withdrawal of DOX. (D) Reverse transcription PCR analysis of expression of exogenous genes 6 days after the withdrawal of DOX.</p

    Identification of pADSCs.

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    <p>(A) Morphology of pADSCs at passage 3, scale bar = 100 µm. (B) Multi-lineage differentiation of pADSCs, mature adipocytes were detected by Oil Red O staining (a), scale bar = 50 µm; osteogenesis was analysis by Alizarin Red S staining (c), scale bar = 200 µm. Cells cultured in the corresponding proliferation medium served as negative controls, respectively (b, scale bar = 50 µm; d, scale bar = 200 µm). (C) Expression of cell surface markers in pADSCs at passage 3 including CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105,CD31, CD45 and HLA-DR. Positive cells were gated based on staining with isotype antibody controls.</p

    Generation of piPSCs from pADSCs.

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    <p>(A) AP staining of colonies which were reprogrammed from pADSCs and pEFs in the presence of feeders and feeder-independent condition. The rate of AP positive colonies was compared between the groups, different superscripts above the bars denote significant difference (<i>P</i><0.05). (B) Schematic of the reprogramming strategy and the, morphology of cells at day 3, 6, 8 and 10. (C) Expression levels of genes associated with reprogramming, including Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4, Lin28 and Nanog were evaluated in pADSCs and pEFs. (D) Expression levels of 5-mC and 5-hmC were analyzed in pADSCs and pEFs by immunofluorescence staining, *<i>P</i><0.05, **<i>P</i><0.01.</p

    Analysis of CpG islands.

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    <p>In CGI analysis, every CGI was divided into 20 bin for evaluating the methylation level. (A) Distribution of CGI sites in different gene elements. (B) Different methylation levels of cytosine (percentage) between prepubertal and pubertal stages. Prepub = prepuberty; Pub = puberty; CGI = CpG island.</p