179 research outputs found

    Classification of imaging results based on the WHO/IWG-E classification of cystic echinococcosis (n = 19).

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    <p>Classification of imaging results based on the WHO/IWG-E classification of cystic echinococcosis (n = 19).</p

    Types of surgery, presence of complications, and recurrence of non-renal hydatid disease (n = 19).

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    †<p>Only leakage of urine,</p>‡<p>3 cases of recurrence in the liver and 1 case of recurrence in the lung.</p

    Type CE2 disease in a 35-year-old Han male patient.

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    <p>The patient experienced intermittent fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness, cough, and expectoration of a white-capsule-like substance for one month and aggravation of symptoms for 3 days. He did not experience any itching or palpitation. Physical examination showed dullness on percussion in the right lung and decreased respiratory movement. He underwent two surgeries for hepatic hydatid disease in 1995 and 2003. A CT image showed multiple hydatid cysts in the right lung (A), chest cavity (B), and diaphragm apex. Compression atelectasis of the right lung and a large amount of pleural effusion on the right side was observed. Multiple hepatic hydatid cysts and a renal hydatid cyst with multiple daughter vesicles were also observed.</p

    Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients (n = 19) with urinary tract cystic echinococcosis.

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    †<p>3 students and 1 child,</p>‡<p>3 workers and 3 farmers,</p>¶<p>2 cases of waist and abdominal mass, 1 case of urine spine balloon, and 1 case of chest tightness,</p>§<p>Some patients had more than one clinical symptom.</p

    Pre-operative diagnostic accuracy of hydatid disease based on different methods (n = 19).

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    †<p>Cochran’s Q test was used to compare the pre-operative diagnostic accuracy rate of ultrasound, computed tomography, and serology.</p

    Unique Configuration of a Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoribbon: Potential Applications to Semiconductor and Hydrogen Fuel Cell

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    Systematic studies on a recently synthesized nitrogen-doped tetragonal-shaped single crystal graphene (NTSG) recover an orderly growth mechanism, which lead to an undiscovered novel structure of this new kind of nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon. The nitrogen atoms, bringing in high spin state depending on the length of the single crystal, endue the NTSG array with special electromagnetic property and possible application in the field of semiconductor. Further examination on oxygen adsorption at NTSG reveals high electrocatalytic activity of NTSG in oxygen reduction reaction, indicating that this nitrogen-doped graphene material could be used as a potential catalyst for hydrogen fuel cells. This work may be helpful for the further research on nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon and promoting the development of a new functional device

    How to Control Inversion vs Retention Transmetalation between Pd<sup>II</sup>–Phenyl and Cu<sup>I</sup>–Alkyl Complexes: Theoretical Insight

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    Transmetalation between Pd­(Br)­(Ph<sup>A</sup>)­(PCyp<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (Ph = phenyl, Cyp = cyclopentyl) and Cu­(C<sup>a</sup>HMePh<sup>B</sup>)­(NHC) (NHC = 1,3-bis­(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolidin-2-ylidene) is an important elementary step in recently reported catalytic cross-coupling reaction by Pd/Cu cooperative system. DFT study discloses that the transmetalation occurs with inversion of the stereochemistry of the C<sup>a</sup>HMePh<sup>B</sup> group. In its transition state, the C<sup>a</sup>HMePh<sup>B</sup> group has almost planar structure around the C<sup>a</sup> atom. That planar geometry is stabilized by conjugation between the π* orbital of the Ph<sup>B</sup> and the 2p orbital of the C<sup>a</sup>. Another important factor is activation entropy (Δ<i>S</i>°<sup>‡</sup>); retention transmetalation occurs through Br-bridging transition state, which is less flexible than that of the inversion transmetalation because of the Br-bridging structure, leading to a smaller activation entropy in the retention transition state than in the inversion transition state. For C<sup>a</sup>HMeEt group, transmetalation occurs in a retention manner. In the planar C<sup>a</sup>HMeEt group of the inversion transition state, the C<sup>a</sup> 2p orbital cannot find a conjugation partner because of the absence of π-electron system in the C<sup>a</sup>HMeEt. Transmetalation of C<sup>a</sup>HMe­(CHCH<sub>2</sub>) occurs in a retention manner because the vinyl π* is less effective for the conjugation with the C<sup>a</sup> 2p because of its higher orbital energy than the Ph π*. The introduction of electron-withdrawing substituent on the Ph<sup>B</sup> is favorable for inversion transmetalation. These results suggest that the stereochemistry of the C<sup>a</sup> atom in transmetalation can be controlled by electronic effect of the C<sup>a</sup>HMeR (R = phenyl, vinyl, or alkyl) and sizes of the substituent and ligand

    How to Control Inversion vs Retention Transmetalation between Pd<sup>II</sup>–Phenyl and Cu<sup>I</sup>–Alkyl Complexes: Theoretical Insight

    No full text
    Transmetalation between Pd­(Br)­(Ph<sup>A</sup>)­(PCyp<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (Ph = phenyl, Cyp = cyclopentyl) and Cu­(C<sup>a</sup>HMePh<sup>B</sup>)­(NHC) (NHC = 1,3-bis­(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolidin-2-ylidene) is an important elementary step in recently reported catalytic cross-coupling reaction by Pd/Cu cooperative system. DFT study discloses that the transmetalation occurs with inversion of the stereochemistry of the C<sup>a</sup>HMePh<sup>B</sup> group. In its transition state, the C<sup>a</sup>HMePh<sup>B</sup> group has almost planar structure around the C<sup>a</sup> atom. That planar geometry is stabilized by conjugation between the π* orbital of the Ph<sup>B</sup> and the 2p orbital of the C<sup>a</sup>. Another important factor is activation entropy (Δ<i>S</i>°<sup>‡</sup>); retention transmetalation occurs through Br-bridging transition state, which is less flexible than that of the inversion transmetalation because of the Br-bridging structure, leading to a smaller activation entropy in the retention transition state than in the inversion transition state. For C<sup>a</sup>HMeEt group, transmetalation occurs in a retention manner. In the planar C<sup>a</sup>HMeEt group of the inversion transition state, the C<sup>a</sup> 2p orbital cannot find a conjugation partner because of the absence of π-electron system in the C<sup>a</sup>HMeEt. Transmetalation of C<sup>a</sup>HMe­(CHCH<sub>2</sub>) occurs in a retention manner because the vinyl π* is less effective for the conjugation with the C<sup>a</sup> 2p because of its higher orbital energy than the Ph π*. The introduction of electron-withdrawing substituent on the Ph<sup>B</sup> is favorable for inversion transmetalation. These results suggest that the stereochemistry of the C<sup>a</sup> atom in transmetalation can be controlled by electronic effect of the C<sup>a</sup>HMeR (R = phenyl, vinyl, or alkyl) and sizes of the substituent and ligand
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