923 research outputs found

    Lip Synchronization by Acoustic Inversion

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    Comparison of HMM and TMDN Methods for Lip Synchronisation

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    This paper presents a comparison between a hidden Markov model (HMM) based method and a novel artificial neural network (ANN) based method for lip synchronisation. Both model types were trained on motion tracking data and a perceptual evaluation was carried out comparing the output of the models, both to each other and to the original tracked data. It was found that the ANN based method was judged significantly better than the HMM based method. Furthermore the original data was not judged significantly better than the output of the ANN method. Index Terms: hidden Markov model, mixture density network, lip synchronisation, inversion mappin

    Comparison of HMM and TMD Methods for Lip Synchronisation

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    This paper presents a comparison between a hidden Markov model (HMM) based method and a novel artificial neural network (ANN) based method for lip synchronisation. Both model types were trained on motion tracking data, and a perceptual evaluation was carried out comparing the output of the models, both to each other and to the original tracked data. It was found that the ANN-based method was judged significantly better than the HMM based method. Furthermore, the original data was not judged significantly better than the output of the ANN method

    Speech-driven animation using multi-modal hidden Markov models

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    The main objective of this thesis was the synthesis of speech synchronised motion, in particular head motion. The hypothesis that head motion can be estimated from the speech signal was confirmed. In order to achieve satisfactory results, a motion capture data base was recorded, a definition of head motion in terms of articulation was discovered, a continuous stream mapping procedure was developed, and finally the synthesis was evaluated. Based on previous research into non-verbal behaviour basic types of head motion were invented that could function as modelling units. The stream mapping method investigated in this thesis is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which employ modelling units to map between continuous signals. The objective evaluation of the modelling parameters confirmed that head motion types could be predicted from the speech signal with an accuracy above chance, close to 70%. Furthermore, a special type ofHMMcalled trajectoryHMMwas used because it enables synthesis of continuous output. However head motion is a stochastic process therefore the trajectory HMM was further extended to allow for non-deterministic output. Finally the resulting head motion synthesis was perceptually evaluated. The effects of the “uncanny valley” were also considered in the evaluation, confirming that rendering quality has an influence on our judgement of movement of virtual characters. In conclusion a general method for synthesising speech-synchronised behaviour was invented that can applied to a whole range of behaviours

    Automatic Head Motion Prediction from Speech Data

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    In this paper we present a novel approach to generate a sequence of head motion units given some speech. The modelling approach is based on the notion that head motion can be divided into a number of short homogeneous units that can be modelled individually. The system is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM), which are trained on motion units and act as a sequence generator. They can be evaluated by an accuracy measure. A database of motion capture data was collected and manually annotated for head motion and is used to train the models. It was found that the model is good at distinguishing high activity regions from regions with less activity with accuracies around 75 percent. Furthermore the model is able to distinguish different head motion patterns based on speech features somewhat reliably, with accuracies reaching almost 70 percent

    Speech-driven head motion synthesis based on a trajectory model.

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    Making human-like characters more natural and life-like requires more inventive approaches than current standard techniques such as synthesis using text features or triggers. In this poster we present a novel approach to automatically synthesise head motion based on speech features. Previous work has focused on frame wise modelling of motion [Busso et al. 2007] or has treated the speach data and motion data streams separately [Brand 1999], although the trajectories of the head motion and speech features are highly correlated and dynamically change over several frames. To model longer units of motion and speech and to reproduce their trajectories during synthesis, we utilise a promising time series stochastic model called ”Trajectory Hidden Markov Models” [Zen et al. 2007]. Its parameter generation algorithm can produce motion trajectories from sequences of units of motion and speech. These two kinds of data are simultaneously modelled by using a multistream type of the trajectory HMMs. The models can be viewed as a Kalman-smoother-like approach, and thereby are capable of producing smooth trajectories

    Lip motion synthesis using a context dependent trajectory hidden Markov model

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    Lip synchronisation is essential to make character animation believeable. In this poster we present a novel technique to automatically synthesise lip motion trajectories given some text and speech. Our work distinguishes itself from other work by not using visemes (visual counterparts of phonemes). The lip motion trajectories are directly modelled using a time series stochastic model called ”Trajectory Hidden Markov Model”. Its parameter generation algorithm can produce motion trajectories that are used to drive control points on the lips directly
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