4 research outputs found

    Speech-driven animation using multi-modal hidden Markov models

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    The main objective of this thesis was the synthesis of speech synchronised motion, in particular head motion. The hypothesis that head motion can be estimated from the speech signal was confirmed. In order to achieve satisfactory results, a motion capture data base was recorded, a definition of head motion in terms of articulation was discovered, a continuous stream mapping procedure was developed, and finally the synthesis was evaluated. Based on previous research into non-verbal behaviour basic types of head motion were invented that could function as modelling units. The stream mapping method investigated in this thesis is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which employ modelling units to map between continuous signals. The objective evaluation of the modelling parameters confirmed that head motion types could be predicted from the speech signal with an accuracy above chance, close to 70%. Furthermore, a special type ofHMMcalled trajectoryHMMwas used because it enables synthesis of continuous output. However head motion is a stochastic process therefore the trajectory HMM was further extended to allow for non-deterministic output. Finally the resulting head motion synthesis was perceptually evaluated. The effects of the “uncanny valley” were also considered in the evaluation, confirming that rendering quality has an influence on our judgement of movement of virtual characters. In conclusion a general method for synthesising speech-synchronised behaviour was invented that can applied to a whole range of behaviours

    A collaborative artefact reconstruction environment

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    A novel collaborative artefact reconstruction environment design is presented that is informed by experimental task observation and participatory design. The motivation for the design was to enable collaborative human and computer effort in the reconstruction of fragmented cuneiform tablets: millennia-old clay tablets used for written communication in early human civilisation. Thousands of joining cuneiform tablet fragments are distributed within and between worldwide collections. The reconstruction of the tablets poses a complex 3D jigsaw puzzle with no physically tractable solution. In reconstruction experiments, participants collaborated synchronously and asynchronously on virtual and physical reconstruction tasks. Results are presented that demonstrate the difficulties experienced by human reconstructors in virtual tasks compared to physical tasks. Unlike computer counterparts, humans have difficulty identifying joins in virtual environments but, unlike computers, humans are averse to making incorrect joins. A successful reconstruction environment would marry the opposing strengths and weaknesses of humans and computers, and provide tools to support the communications and interactions of successful physical performance, in the virtual setting. The paper presents a taxonomy of the communications and interactions observed in successful physical and synchronous collaborative reconstruction tasks. Tools for the support of these communications and interactions were successfully incorporated in the “i3D” virtual environment design presented

    Speech-driven animation using multi-modal hidden Markov models

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    The main objective of this thesis was the synthesis of speech synchronised motion, in particular head motion. The hypothesis that head motion can be estimated from the speech signal was confirmed. In order to achieve satisfactory results, a motion capture data base was recorded, a definition of head motion in terms of articulation was discovered, a continuous stream mapping procedure was developed, and finally the synthesis was evaluated. Based on previous research into non-verbal behaviour basic types of head motion were invented that could function as modelling units. The stream mapping method investigated in this thesis is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which employ modelling units to map between continuous signals. The objective evaluation of the modelling parameters confirmed that head motion types could be predicted from the speech signal with an accuracy above chance, close to 70%. Furthermore, a special type ofHMMcalled trajectoryHMMwas used because it enables synthesis of continuous output. However head motion is a stochastic process therefore the trajectory HMM was further extended to allow for non-deterministic output. Finally the resulting head motion synthesis was perceptually evaluated. The effects of the “uncanny valley” were also considered in the evaluation, confirming that rendering quality has an influence on our judgement of movement of virtual characters. In conclusion a general method for synthesising speech-synchronised behaviour was invented that can applied to a whole range of behaviours.EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    The surgical safety checklist and patient outcomes after surgery: a prospective observational cohort study, systematic review and meta-analysis

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    © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia Background: The surgical safety checklist is widely used to improve the quality of perioperative care. However, clinicians continue to debate the clinical effectiveness of this tool. Methods: Prospective analysis of data from the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS), an international observational study of elective in-patient surgery, accompanied by a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature. The exposure was surgical safety checklist use. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome was postoperative complications. In the ISOS cohort, a multivariable multi-level generalized linear model was used to test associations. To further contextualise these findings, we included the results from the ISOS cohort in a meta-analysis. Results are reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: We included 44 814 patients from 497 hospitals in 27 countries in the ISOS analysis. There were 40 245 (89.8%) patients exposed to the checklist, whilst 7508 (16.8%) sustained ≄1 postoperative complications and 207 (0.5%) died before hospital discharge. Checklist exposure was associated with reduced mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 (0.32–0.77); P\u3c0.01], but no difference in complication rates [OR 1.02 (0.88–1.19); P=0.75]. In a systematic review, we screened 3732 records and identified 11 eligible studies of 453 292 patients including the ISOS cohort. Checklist exposure was associated with both reduced postoperative mortality [OR 0.75 (0.62–0.92); P\u3c0.01; I2=87%] and reduced complication rates [OR 0.73 (0.61–0.88); P\u3c0.01; I2=89%). Conclusions: Patients exposed to a surgical safety checklist experience better postoperative outcomes, but this could simply reflect wider quality of care in hospitals where checklist use is routine
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