58 research outputs found

    Immigration futures: New Zealand in a global context

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    At no other time in the past century has there been such focused and intense global interest in international migration. Never before has there been such interest, internationally, in how Australia, Canada and New Zealand manage their international migration. These countries have become models for governments elsewhere who are seeking to develop policy that has a more direct impact on the quality of the population flows into their countries. New Zealand is unusual by OECD standards in that it has a high level of emigration of citizens at the same time that it has a very high per capita rate of immigration. New Zealand’s contemporary migration flows are examined briefly and it is demonstrated that the system is not nearly as dominated by migration from countries in northeast Asia as it was a decade ago. A more flexible approach to the attainment of permits to reside in a country is being adopted in most countries now. The prospective migrants take the opportunity to assess employment opportunities and the quality of life in a prospective new home (perhaps not their only home either), while working or studying on temporary permits and gaining the sort of local experience that is valued in the points-based immigrant selection systems. The paper concludes with a brief analysis of data relating to transition to residence in New Zealand

    Migrants in their family contexts: Application of a methodology

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    The composition of immigrant families is a topic which has attracted considerable public and political attention in recent years. In the late 1980s concern was expressed over the size of some households of Pacific Island peoples in New Zealand. In the 1990s a more persistent concern has been with the incidence of what have been called ‘astronaut’ families – families where one of the partners is persistently absent overseas. The ‘astronaut’ family phenomenon has been most commonly associated with Chinese immigrants from Hong Kong and Taiwan. This report uses a novel methodology to examine the incidence of ‘astronaut’ families in New Zealand at the time of the 1991 and 1996 censuses. The methodology is described in some detail in the first section, and it is hoped that the careful attention to the procedures used to examine migrants, who have been identified in the census, in their family contexts will stimulate further research in this area. The second part of the report presents the findings of an initial exploration of 1991 and 1996 census data using the methodology outlined in the first section. It is clear from results of this inquiry that the ‘astronaut’ family phenomenon is well established amongst some components of New Zealand’s Asian community. However, it is not as widespread as media comment in 1995 and 1996, before the 1996 election, suggested. It is important to develop ways of assessing characteristics of immigrant family structures in order to counter unsubstantiated assertions which promote negative stereotypes of immigrant communities. This research, which builds on a project supported by the Marsden Fund in 1997, suggest one fruitful avenue for making more extensive use of census data on immigrants in New Zealand to provide more objective assessment of “migrants in social context”

    International migration in New Zealand: Context, components and policy issues

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    This paper explores Aotearoa/New Zealand’s distinctive heritage as both a ‘traditional land of immigration’ as well as a ‘country of emigration’, with particular reference to contemporary policy issues and research initiatives. An underlying theme of the argument is the need for an approach which takes account of all types of movement into and out of the country when researching immigration, both as a process and as a policy domain

    Maori internal and international migration at the turn of the century: An Australasian perspective

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    At the beginning of the twenty-first century there were two major national clusters of Maori: New Zealand, the ancestral home for Maori, and Australia, home to a much smaller Maori population from the early years of the nineteenth century. In the 2001 censuses of New Zealand and Australia, the usually resident Maori populations were, respectively, 526,281 (ethnic group classification) and 72,956 (ancestry classification). In this paper we examine four dimensions of Maori population movement between 1996 and 2001 using the census data from New Zealand and Australia: 1) internal migration between rural and urban areas in New Zealand; 2) internal migration between rural and urban areas in Australia; 3) migration into New Zealand of Maori resident overseas in 1996; 4) migration into Australia of Maori resident overseas in 1996. There has never been a comprehensive assessment of Maori migration in an Australasian context before, but in the light of developments in population exchanges between New Zealand and Australia this sort of analysis is critical if one wishes to understand contemporary Maori population dynamics

    Place in ageing: the housing experiences of older Chinese immigrants in New Zealand

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    "Ageing in place" has gained dominance in policy worldwide for more than one and a half decades. This paper explores the significance of place in ageing, in particular within the context of globalisation and immigration. In order to promote the value and participation of older ethnic people in communities, the New Zealand Government has acknowledged cultural diversity in ageing in place policies. However, the concept of ageing in place is based predominantly on middle-class and Euro-centric values. The policies based on such understandings may not be as applicable to the ethnic Chinese. Moreover, ageing in place policies sometimes simply appear to ignore the fact that cultural norms (such as parent-child co-residence in the filial piety practice) may have changed when the migrant is affected by acculturation processes in a Western cultural context. These issues indicate that more culturally attuned research is needed about ageing in place among older Chinese immigrants. Using a Chinese case study conducted in New Zealand, the present research is designed to explore older Chinese migrants’ experiences of ageing in place. This paper answers the following research questions: 1) why did the participants immigrate to New Zealand; 2) were they relatively permanently settled; 3) why they moved; and 4) what are their current living arrangements

    Self-Employment Among Chinese Immigrants in New Zealand

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    This paper examines the self-employment patterns of Chinese immigrants in New Zealand, using labour force data provided in the 1996 Census of Population and Dwellings and survey data from interviews in New Zealand and Hong Kong. As expected, the census data show that the propensities to enter self-employment increase with age and length of residence in New Zealand. Amongst the Chinese immigrants who came to New Zealand after 1986, the pursuit of self-employment is unlikely to be confined to immigrants approved under the business immigration schemes. Structural barriers to employment, such as non-recognition of overseas qualifications and experiences, can also drive many contemporary Chinese immigrants into self-employment. The second part of the paper reflects on the business experiences of recent Chinese migrants in New Zealand, drawing on research carried out on the migration of entrepreneurs to New Zealand from Hong Kong during the 1990's. We conclude our paper by discussing some of the implications of the Government's recent business immigration policy changes. We emphasize the need for a post-settlement policy and other initiatives that will ensure that immigrants are able to maximize their opportunities to contribute effectively to New Zealand's economy and society

    Give Us A Chance: The Employment Experiences of New Settlers From East Asia

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    Our research on new settlers from Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea has revealed a general unhappiness with the lack of government planning and preparation to meet the needs of migrants who had been actively encouraged to come to New Zealand to help establish links with Asia. Over half had no paid employment in New Zealand. Among those who were currently employed, less than half had been able to obtain jobs related to their previous work experience and skills. Those who wished to do business were dissatisfied with the lack of information about business investment opportunities and the tax system. When it proved impossible to find appropriate employment or set up business in New Zealand in an effort to remain self-reliant, some immigrants chose to leave the family in New Zealand and return to work in their country of origin

    Give Us A Chance: The Employment Experiences of New Settlers From East Asia

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    Our research on new settlers from Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea has revealed a general unhappiness with the lack of government planning and preparation to meet the needs of migrants who had been actively encouraged to come to New Zealand to help establish links with Asia. Over half had no paid employment in New Zealand. Among those who were currently employed, less than half had been able to obtain jobs related to their previous work experience and skills. Those who wished to do business were dissatisfied with the lack of information about business investment opportunities and the tax system. When it proved impossible to find appropriate employment or set up business in New Zealand in an effort to remain self-reliant, some immigrants chose to leave the family in New Zealand and return to work in their country of origin

    Self-Employment Among Chinese Immigrants in New Zealand

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    This paper examines the self-employment patterns of Chinese immigrants in New Zealand, using labour force data provided in the 1996 Census of Population and Dwellings and survey data from interviews in New Zealand and Hong Kong. As expected, the census data show that the propensities to enter self-employment increase with age and length of residence in New Zealand. Amongst the Chinese immigrants who came to New Zealand after 1986, the pursuit of self-employment is unlikely to be confined to immigrants approved under the business immigration schemes. Structural barriers to employment, such as non-recognition of overseas qualifications and experiences, can also drive many contemporary Chinese immigrants into self-employment. The second part of the paper reflects on the business experiences of recent Chinese migrants in New Zealand, drawing on research carried out on the migration of entrepreneurs to New Zealand from Hong Kong during the 1990's. We conclude our paper by discussing some of the implications of the Government's recent business immigration policy changes. We emphasize the need for a post-settlement policy and other initiatives that will ensure that immigrants are able to maximize their opportunities to contribute effectively to New Zealand's economy and society

    Who Are the Most Unemployed People in New Zealand and What Can We Do About it?

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    This paper presents an analysis of data for the top ten most unemployed groups by ethnicity and birthplace who were living in New Zealand at the 2001 Census. These groups are either from refugee backgrounds, are highly visible groups, or come from strong extended family networks. These data are supplemented with information from the New Zealand Immigration Service's Longitudinal Immigration Pilot Survey and Refugee Voices Project as well as qualitative data from other research in New Zealand. Overall, the findings from this assessment of the census and survey data have significant implications for the development and provision of employment intervention programmes in New Zealand
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