91 research outputs found

    Sources of QTc variability: Implications for effective ECG monitoring in clinical practice

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    Pharmaceuticals that prolong ventricular repolarization may be proarrhythmic in susceptible patients. While this fact is well recognized, schemes for sequential QTc interval monitoring in patients receiving QT prolonging drugs are frequently overlooked or, if implemented, underutilized in clinical practice. There are several reasons for this gap in the day-to-day clinical practice. One of these is the perception that serially measured QTc intervals are subject to substantial variability that hampers the distinction between potential proarrhythmic signs and other sources of QTc variability. This review shows that substantial part of the QTc variability can be avoided if more accurate methodology for electrocardiogram collection, measurement, and interpretation is used. Four aspects of such a methodology are discussed. First, advanced methods for QT interval measurement are proposed including suggestion of multi-lead measurements in problematic recordings such as those in atrial fibrillation patients. Second, serial comparisons of T wave morphologies are advocated instead of simple acceptance of historical QTc measurements. Third, the necessity of understanding the pitfalls of heart rate correction is stressed including the necessity of avoiding the Bazett correction in cases of using QTc values for clinical decisions. Finally, the frequently overlooked problem of QT-heart rate hysteresis is discussed including the possibility of gross QTc errors when correcting the QT interval for simultaneously measured short-term heart rate

    Detection of T wave peak for serial comparisons of JTp interval

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    Electrocardiogram (ECG) studies of drug-induced prolongation of the interval between the J point and the peak of the T wave (JTp interval) distinguished QT prolonging drugs that predominantly block the delayed potassium rectifier current from those affecting multiple cardiac repolarisation ion channel currents. Since the peak of the T wave depends on ECG lead, a “global” T peak requires to combine ECG leads into one-dimensional signal in which the T wave peak can be measured. This study aimed at finding the optimum one-dimensional representation of 12-lead ECGs for the most stable JTp measurements. Seven different one-dimensional representations were investigated including the vector magnitude of the orthogonal XYZ transformation, root mean square of all 12 ECG leads, and the vector magnitude of the 3 dominant orthogonal leads derived by singular value decomposition. All representations were applied to the representative waveforms of 660,657 separate 10-second 12-lead ECGs taken from repeated day-time Holter recordings in 523 healthy subjects aged 33.5±8.4 years (254 women). The JTp measurements were compared with the QT intervals and with the intervals between the J point and the median point of the area under the T wave one-dimensional representation (JT50 intervals) by means of calculating the residuals of the subject-specific curvilinear regression models relating the measured interval to the hysteresis-corrected RR interval of the underlying heart rate. The residuals of the regression models (equal to the intra-subject standard deviations of individually heart rate corrected intervals) expressed intra-subject stability of interval measurements. For both the JTp intervals and the JT50 intervals, the curvilinear regression residuals of measurements derived from the orthogonal XYZ representation were marginally but statistically significantly lower compared to the other representations. Using the XYZ representation, the residuals of the QT/RR, JTp/RR and JT50/RR regressions were 5.6±1.1 ms, 7.2±2.2 ms, and 4.9±1.2 ms, respectively (all statistically significantly different; p<0.0001). The study concludes that the orthogonal XYZ ECG representation might be proposed for future investigations of JTp and JT50 intervals. If the ability of classifying QT prolonging drugs is further confirmed for the JT50 interval, it might be appropriate to replace the JTp interval since it appears more stable

    Short-term beat-to-beat QT variability appears influenced more strongly by recording quality than by beat-to-beat RR variability.

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    Increases in beat-to-beat variability of electrocardiographic QT interval duration have repeatedly been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and complications. The measurements of QT variability are frequently normalized for the underlying RR interval variability. Such normalization supports the concept of the so-called immediate RR effect which relates each QT interval to the preceding RR interval. The validity of this concept was investigated in the present study together with the analysis of the influence of electrocardiographic morphological stability on QT variability measurements. The analyses involved QT and RR measurements in 6,114,562 individual beats of 642,708 separate 10-s ECG samples recorded in 523 healthy volunteers (259 females). Only beats with high morphology correlation (r > 0.99) with representative waveforms of the 10-s ECG samples were analyzed, assuring that only good quality recordings were included. In addition to these high correlations, SDs of the ECG signal difference between representative waveforms and individual beats expressed morphological instability and ECG noise. In the intra-subject analyses of both individual beats and of 10-s averages, QT interval variability was substantially more strongly related to the ECG noise than to the underlying RR variability. In approximately one-third of the analyzed ECG beats, the prolongation or shortening of the preceding RR interval was followed by the opposite change of the QT interval. In linear regression analyses, underlying RR variability within each 10-s ECG sample explained only 5.7 and 11.1% of QT interval variability in females and males, respectively. On the contrary, the underlying ECG noise contents of the 10-s samples explained 56.5 and 60.1% of the QT interval variability in females and males, respectively. The study concludes that the concept of stable and uniform immediate RR interval effect on the duration of subsequent QT interval duration is highly questionable. Even if only stable beat-to-beat measurements of QT interval are used, the QT interval variability is still substantially influenced by morphological variability and noise pollution of the source ECG recordings. Even when good quality recordings are used, noise contents of the electrocardiograms should be objectively examined in future studies of QT interval variability

    Improved Stratification of Autonomic Regulation for risk prediction in post-infarction patients with preserved left ventricular function (ISAR-Risk)

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    Aims To investigate the combination of heart rate turbulence (HRT) and deceleration capacity (DC) as risk predictors in post-infarction patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 30%. Methods and results We enrolled 2343 consecutive survivors of acute myocardial infarction (MI) (30% (cumulative 5-year mortality rates of 37.9% and 7.8%, respectively). Among patients with LVEF > 30%, SAF identified another high-risk group of 117 patients with 37 deaths (cumulative 5-year mortality rates of 38.6% and 6.1%, respectively). Merging both high-risk groups (i.e. LVEF ≤ 30% and/or SAF) doubled the sensitivity of mortality prediction compared with LVEF ≤ 30% alone (21.1% vs. 42.1%, P 30%, SAF identifies a high-risk group equivalent in size and mortality risk to patients with LVEF ≤ 30%

    Single Doses up to 800 mg of E-52862 Do Not Prolong the QTc Interval--A Retrospective Validation by Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Electrocardiography Data Utilising the Effects of a Meal on QTc to Demonstrate ECG Assay Sensitivity.

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    BACKGROUND: E-52862 is a Sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA) currently under investigation as a potential analgesic medicine. We successfully applied a concentration-effect model retrospectively to a four-way crossover Phase I single ascending dose study and utilized the QTc shortening effects of a meal to demonstrate assay sensitivity by establishing the time course effects from baseline in all four periods, independently from any potential drug effects. METHODS: Thirty two healthy male and female subjects were included in four treatment periods to receive single ascending doses of 500 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg of E-52862 or placebo. PK was linear over the dose range investigated and doses up to 600 mg were well tolerated. The baseline electrocardiography (ECG) measurements on Day-1 were time-matched with ECG and pharmacokinetic (PK) samples on Day 1 (dosing day). RESULTS: In this conventional mean change to time-matched placebo analysis, the largest time-matched difference to placebo QTcI was 1.44 ms (90% CI: -4.04, 6.93 ms) for 500 mg; -0.39 ms (90% CI: -3.91, 3.13 ms) for 600 mg and 1.32 ms (90% CI: -1.89, 4.53 ms) for 800 mg of E-52862, thereby showing the absence of any QTc prolonging effect at the doses tested. In addition concentration-effect models, one based on the placebo corrected change from baseline and one for the change of QTcI from average baseline with time as fixed effect were fitted to the data confirming the results of the time course analysis. CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a shortening of QTcF of -8.1 (90% CI: -10.4, -5.9) one hour and -7.2 (90% CI: -9.4, -5.0) three hours after a standardised meal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2010 020343 13

    Heart Rate Variability Dynamics for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Risk

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    Statistical, spectral, multi-resolution and non-linear methods were applied to heart rate variability (HRV) series linked with classification schemes for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk. A total of 90 HRV records were analyzed: 45 from healthy subjects and 45 from cardiovascular risk patients. A total of 52 features from all the analysis methods were evaluated using standard two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test). The results of the statistical procedure provided input to multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks and support vector machines (SVM) for data classification. These schemes showed high performances with both training and test sets and many combinations of features (with a maximum accuracy of 96.67%). Additionally, there was a strong consideration for breathing frequency as a relevant feature in the HRV analysis