7 research outputs found

### Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

Efficient iterative solution methods are being developed for the numerical solution of two- and three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Iterative time marching methods have several advantages over classical multi-step explicit time marching schemes, and non-iterative implicit time marching schemes. Iterative schemes have better stability characteristics than non-iterative explicit and implicit schemes. Thus, the extra work required by iterative schemes can also be designed to perform efficiently on current and future generation scalable, missively parallel machines. An obvious candidate for iteratively solving the system of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations arising in CFD applications is the Newton method. Newton's method was implemented in existing finite difference and finite volume methods. Depending on the complexity of the problem, the number of Newton iterations needed per step to solve the discretized system of equations can, however, vary dramatically from a few to several hundred. Another popular approach based on the classical conjugate gradient method, known as the GMRES (Generalized Minimum Residual) algorithm is investigated. The GMRES algorithm was used in the past by a number of researchers for solving steady viscous and inviscid flow problems with considerable success. Here, the suitability of this algorithm is investigated for solving the system of nonlinear equations that arise in unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers at each time step. Unlike the Newton method which attempts to drive the error in the solution at each and every node down to zero, the GMRES algorithm only seeks to minimize the L2 norm of the error. In the GMRES algorithm the changes in the flow properties from one time step to the next are assumed to be the sum of a set of orthogonal vectors. By choosing the number of vectors to a reasonably small value N (between 5 and 20) the work required for advancing the solution from one time step to the next may be kept to (N+1) times that of a noniterative scheme. Many of the operations required by the GMRES algorithm such as matrix-vector multiplies, matrix additions and subtractions can all be vectorized and parallelized efficiently

### Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

The development of efficient iterative solution methods for the numerical solution of two- and three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations is discussed. Iterative time marching methods have several advantages over classical multi-step explicit time marching schemes, and non-iterative implicit time marching schemes. Iterative schemes have better stability characteristics than non-iterative explicit and implicit schemes. In this work, another approach based on the classical conjugate gradient method, known as the Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) algorithm is investigated. The GMRES algorithm has been used in the past by a number of researchers for solving steady viscous and inviscid flow problems. Here, we investigate the suitability of this algorithm for solving the system of non-linear equations that arise in unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers at each time step

### Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

During the past two decades, there has been significant progress in the field of numerical simulation of unsteady compressible viscous flows. At present, a variety of solution techniques exist such as the transonic small disturbance analyses (TSD), transonic full potential equation-based methods, unsteady Euler solvers, and unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. These advances have been made possible by developments in three areas: (1) improved numerical algorithms; (2) automation of body-fitted grid generation schemes; and (3) advanced computer architectures with vector processing and massively parallel processing features. In this work, the GMRES scheme has been considered as a candidate for acceleration of a Newton iteration time marching scheme for unsteady 2-D and 3-D compressible viscous flow calculation; from preliminary calculations, this will provide up to a 65 percent reduction in the computer time requirements over the existing class of explicit and implicit time marching schemes. The proposed method has ben tested on structured grids, but is flexible enough for extension to unstructured grids. The described scheme has been tested only on the current generation of vector processor architecture of the Cray Y/MP class, but should be suitable for adaptation to massively parallel machines

### Dual Rotating Rake Measurements of Higher-Order Duct Modes: Validation Using Experimental and Numerical Data

A rotating rake mode measurement system was designed to measure acoustic duct modes generated by a fan stage. After analysis of the measured data, the mode coefficient amplitudes and phases were quantified. Early studies using this system found that mode power levels computed from rotating rake measured data would agree with the far-field power levels. However, this agreement required that the sound from the noise sources within the duct propagated outward from the duct exit without reflection and previous studies suggested conditions could exist where significant reflections could occur. This paper shows that mounting a second rake to the rotating system, with an offset in both the axial and the azimuthal directions, measures the data necessary to determine the modes propagating in both directions within a duct. The rotating rake data analysis technique was extended to include the data measured by the second rake. The analysis resulted in a set of circumferential mode coefficients at each of the two rake microphone locations. Radial basis functions were then least-squares fit to this data to obtain the radial mode coefficients for the modes propagating in both directions within the duct while accounting for the presence of evanescent modes. The validation of the dual-rotating-rake measurements was conducted using data from a combination of experiments and numerical calculations to compute reflection coefficients and other mode coefficient ratios. Compared to results from analytical and numerical computations, the results from dual-rotating-rake measured data followed the expected trends when frequency, mode number, and duct termination geometry were changed

### Development of Computational Aeroacoustics Code for Jet Noise and Flow Prediction

Accurate prediction of jet fan and exhaust plume flow and noise generation and propagation is very important in developing advanced aircraft engines that will pass current and future noise regulations. In jet fan flows as well as exhaust plumes, two major sources of noise are present: large-scale, coherent instabilities and small-scale turbulent eddies. In previous work for the NASA Glenn Research Center, three strategies have been explored in an effort to computationally predict the noise radiation from supersonic jet exhaust plumes. In order from the least expensive computationally to the most expensive computationally, these are: 1) Linearized Euler equations (LEE). 2) Very Large Eddy Simulations (VLES). 3) Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The first method solves the linearized Euler equations (LEE). These equations are obtained by linearizing about a given mean flow and the neglecting viscous effects. In this way, the noise from large-scale instabilities can be found for a given mean flow. The linearized Euler equations are computationally inexpensive, and have produced good noise results for supersonic jets where the large-scale instability noise dominates, as well as for the tone noise from a jet engine blade row. However, these linear equations do not predict the absolute magnitude of the noise; instead, only the relative magnitude is predicted. Also, the predicted disturbances do not modify the mean flow, removing a physical mechanism by which the amplitude of the disturbance may be controlled. Recent research for isolated airfoils' indicates that this may not affect the solution greatly at low frequencies. The second method addresses some of the concerns raised by the LEE method. In this approach, called Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES), the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-accuracy computational aeroacoustics numerical scheme. With the addition of a two-equation turbulence model and the use of a relatively coarse grid, the numerical solution is effectively filtered into a directly calculated mean flow with the small-scale turbulence being modeled, and an unsteady large-scale component that is also being directly calculated. In this way, the unsteady disturbances are calculated in a nonlinear way, with a direct effect on the mean flow. This method is not as fast as the LEE approach, but does have many advantages to recommend it; however, like the LEE approach, only the effect of the largest unsteady structures will be captured. An initial calculation was performed on a supersonic jet exhaust plume, with promising results, but the calculation was hampered by the explicit time marching scheme that was employed. This explicit scheme required a very small time step to resolve the nozzle boundary layer, which caused a long run time. Current work is focused on testing a lower-order implicit time marching method to combat this problem