251 research outputs found

### It is a Graviton! or maybe not

The discovery of Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons is a smoking gun of extra
dimensions. Other scenarios, however, could give rise to spin-two resonances of
a new strongly-coupled sector and act as impostors. In this paper we prove that
a spin-two resonance does not couple to the Standard Model through
dimension-four operators. We then show that the massive graviton and its
impostor both couple to the Standard Model through the same dimension-five
operators. Therefore the spin determination is identical. Nevertheless, we also
show that one can use the ratio of branching ratios to photons and to jets for
distinguishing between KK gravitons and their impostors. The capacity to
distinguish between KK gravitons and impostors is a manifestation of the
breakdown of the duality between AdS and strongly-coupled theories.Comment: 14 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. References added, typos correcte

### Distinguishing among Technicolor/Warped Scenarios in Dileptons

Models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking usually include new spin-1
resonances, whose couplings and masses have to satisfy electroweak precision
tests. We propose to use dilepton searches to probe the underlying structure
responsible for satisfying these. Using the invariant mass spectrum and charge
asymmetry, we can determine the number, parity, and isospin of these
resonances. We pick three models of strong/warped symmetry breaking, and show
that each model produces specific features that reflect this underlying
structure of electroweak symmetry breaking and cancellations.Comment: Added missing referenc

### Mass-Matching in Higgsless

Modern extra-dimensional Higgsless scenarios rely on a mass-matching between
fermionic and bosonic KK resonances to evade constraints from precision
electroweak measurements. After analyzing all of the Tevatron and LEP bounds on
these so-called Cured Higgsless scenarios, we study their LHC signatures and
explore how to identify the mass-matching mechanism, the key to their
viability. We find singly and pair produced fermionic resonances show up as
clean signals with 2 or 4 leptons and 2 hard jets, while neutral and charged
bosonic resonances are visible in the dilepton and leptonic WZ channels,
respectively. A measurement of the resonance masses from these channels shows
the matching necessary to achieve $S\simeq 0$. Moreover, a large single
production of KK-fermion resonances is a clear indication of compositeness of
SM quarks. Discovery reach is below 10 fb$^{-1}$ of luminosity for resonances
in the 700 GeV range.Comment: 28 pages, 18 figure

### Anomaly-matching and Higgs-less effective theories

We reconsider the low-energy effective theory for Higgs-less electroweak
symmetry breaking: we study the anomaly-matching in the situation where all
Goldstone fields disappear from the spectrum as a result of the Higgs
mechanism. We find that the global SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_{B-L} symmetry of
the underlying theory, which is spontaneously broken to SU(2)_{L+R} x
U(1)_{B-L} has to be anomaly-free. For the sake of generality, we include the
possibility of light spin-1/2 bound states resulting from the dynamics of the
strongly-interacting symmetry-breaking sector, in addition to the Goldstone
bosons. Such composite fermions may have non-standard couplings at the leading
order, and an arbitrary total B-L charge. In order to perform the
anomaly-matching in that case, we generalize the construction of the
Wess-Zumino effective lagrangian. Composite fermions beyond the three known
generations are theoretically allowed, and there are no restrictions from the
anomaly-matching on their couplings nor on their U(1)_{B-L} charge. Absence of
global anomalies for the composite sector as a whole does not preclude
anomalous triple gauge boson couplings arising from composite fermion
triangular diagrams. On the other hand, the trace of B-L over elementary
fermions must vanish if all Goldstone modes are to disappear from the spectrum.Comment: Keywords: Anomalies in Field and String Theories, Spontaneous
Symmetry Breaking, Beyond the Standard Model, Chiral Lagrangians. 33 pages, 7
figure

### Chiral Extrapolation of the Strangeness Changing K pi Form Factor

We perform a chiral extrapolation of lattice data on the scalar K pi form
factor and the ratio of the kaon and pion decay constants within Chiral
Perturbation Theory to two loops. We determine the value of the scalar form
factor at zero momentum transfer, at the Callan-Treiman point and at its soft
kaon analog as well as its slope. Results are in good agreement with their
determination from experiment using the standard couplings of quarks to the W
boson. The slope is however rather large. A study of the convergence of the
chiral expansion is also performed.Comment: few minor change

### Linear confinement without dilaton in bottom-up holography for walking technicolour

In PRD78(2008)055005 [arXiv:0805.1503 [hep-ph]] and PRD79(2009)075004
[arXiv:0809.1324 [hep-ph]], we constructed a holographic description of walking
technicolour theories using both a hard- and a soft-wall model. Here, we show
that the dilaton field becomes phenomenologically irrelevant for the spectrum
of spin-one resonances once a term is included in the Lagrangian that mixes the
Goldstone bosons and the longitudinal components of the axial vector mesons. We
show how this mixing affects our previous results and we make predictions about
how this description of technicolour can be tested.Comment: 7 pages, no figure

### Role of intrinsic and extrinsic xylan in softwood kraft pulp fiber networks

Xylan is primarily found in the secondary cell wall of plants providing strength and integrity. To take advantage of the reinforcing effect of xylan in papermaking, it is crucial to understand its role in pulp fibers, as it undergoes substantial changes during pulping. However, the contributions of xylan that is added afterwards (extrinsic) and xylan present after pulping (intrinsic) remain largely unexplored. Here, we partially degraded xylan from refined bleached softwood kraft pulp (BSKP) and adsorbed xylan onto BSKP. Enzymatic degradation of 1 % xylan resulted in an open hand sheet structure, while adsorption of 3 % xylan created a denser fiber network. The mechanical properties improved with adsorbed xylan, but decreased more significantly after enzymatic treatment. We propose that the enhancement in mechanical properties by adsorbed extrinsic xylan is due to increased fiber-fiber bonds and sheet density, while the deterioration in mechanical properties of the enzyme treated pulp is caused by the opposite effect. These findings suggest that xylan is decisive for fiber network strength. However, intrinsic xylan is more critical, and the same properties cannot be achieved by readsorbing xylan onto the fibers. Therefore, pulping parameters should be selected to preserve intrinsic xylan within the fibers to maintain paper strength

### Estimation of ash injection in the atmosphere by basaltic volcanic plumes: the case of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption

During explosive eruptions, volcanic plumes inject ash into the atmosphere and may severely affect air traffic, as illustrated by the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Quantitative estimates of ash injection can be deduced from the height reached by the volcanic plume on the basis of scaling laws inferred from models of powerful Plinian plumes. In less explosive basaltic eruptions, there is a partitioning of the magma influx between the atmospheric plume and an effusive lava flow on the ground. We link the height reached by the volcanic plume with the rate of ash injection in the atmosphere via a refined plume model that (1) includes a recently developed variable entrainment law and (2) accounts for mass partitioning between ground flow and plume. We compute the time evolution of the rate of injection of ash into the atmosphere for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption on the basis of satellite thermal images and plume heights and use the dispersion model of the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center of Toulouse to translate these numbers into hazard maps. The classical Plinian model would have overestimated ash injection by about 20% relative to the refined estimate, which does not jeopardize risk assessment. This small error was linked to effective fragmentation by intense interactions of magma with water derived from melting of ice and hence strong mass partitioning into the plume. For a less well fragmented basaltic dry eruption, the error may reach 1 order of magnitude and hence undermine the prediction of ash dispersion, which demonstrates the need to monitor both plume heights and ground flows during an explosive eruption

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