67,963 research outputs found

    Instrumentation for Millimeter-wave Magnetoelectrodynamic Investigations of Low-Dimensional Conductors and Superconductors

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    We describe instrumentation for conducting high sensitivity millimeter-wave cavity perturbation measurements over a broad frequency range (40-200 GHz) and in the presence of strong magnetic fields (up to 33 tesla). A Millimeter-wave Vector Network Analyzer (MVNA) acts as a continuously tunable microwave source and phase sensitive detector (8-350 GHz), enabling simultaneous measurements of the complex cavity parameters (resonance frequency and Q-value) at a rapid repetition rate (approx. 10 kHz). We discuss the principal of operation of the MVNA and the construction of a probe for coupling the MVNA to various cylindrical resonator configurations which can easily be inserted into a high field magnet cryostat. We also present several experimental results which demonstrate the potential of the instrument for studies of low-dimensional conducting systems.Comment: 20 pages including fig

    T-Parity Violation by Anomalies

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    Little Higgs theories often rely on an internal parity ("T-parity'') to suppress non-standard electroweak effects or to provide a dark matter candidate. We show that such a symmetry is generally broken by anomalies, as described by the Wess-Zumino-Witten term. We study a simple SU(3) x SU(3)/SU(3) Little Higgs scheme where we obtain a minimal form for the topological interactions of a single Higgs field. The results apply to more general models, including [SU(3) x SU(3)/SU(3)]^4, SU(5)/SO(5), and SU(6)/Sp(6).Comment: 17 page

    Topological Physics of Little Higgs Bosons

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    Topological interactions will generally occur in composite Higgs or Little Higgs theories, extra-dimensional gauge theories in which A_5 plays the role of a Higgs boson, and amongst the pNGB's of technicolor. This phenomena arises from the chiral and anomaly structure of the underlying UV completion theory, and/or through chiral delocalization in higher dimensions. These effects are described by a full Wess-Zumino-Witten term involving gauge fields and pNGB's. We give a general discussion of these interactions, some of which may have novel signatures at future colliders, such as the LHC and ILC.Comment: 22 page

    Anomalies, Chern-Simons Terms and Chiral Delocalization in Extra Dimensions

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    Gauge invariant topological interactions, such as the D=5 Chern-Simons terms, are required in models in extra dimensions that split anomaly free representations. The Chern-Simons term is necessary to maintain the overall anomaly cancellations of the theory, but it can have significant, observable, physical effects. The CS-term locks the KK-mode parity to the parity of space-time, leaving a single parity symmetry. It leads to new processes amongst KK-modes, eg, the decay of a KK-mode to a 2-body final state of KK-modes. A formalism for the effective interaction amongst KK-modes is constructed, and the decay of a KK-mode to KK-mode plus zero mode is analyzed as an example. We elaborate the general KK-mode current and anomaly structure of these theories. This includes a detailed study of the triangle diagrams and the associated ``consistent anomalies'' for Weyl spinors on the boundary branes. We also develop the non-abelian formalism. We illustrate this by showing in a simple way how a D=5 Yang-Mills ``quark flavor'' symmetry leads to the D=4 chiral lagrangian of mesons and the quantized Wess-Zumino-Witten term.Comment: 51 pages, 3 figures; Corrected typos, amplified discussio

    L-band, 1.2 m parabolic antenna-noise temperature measurement

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    Extensive antenna-noise temperature measurements at 1.6 GHz (L-band) were made using a 1.2 m (4 ft. diameter) parabolic dish antenna mounted on the flying bridge of a modern 15,690-ton, commercial-container ship. Both in-harbor and at-sea radiometer measurements were made that indicated a steady background, antenna-noise temperature value slightly less than 70 degrees Kelvin (K) at elevation angles of 5 percent, and greater, at 1.6 GHz. A comparison of theoretical and measured values indicate excellent agreement within about 5K for at-sea data. These measurements are helpful to RF equipment designers of maritime, L-band shipboard terminals for operation with the two, geostationary, maritime satellites, Marisat-A and -B

    Histogram analysis as a method for determining the line tension by Monte-Carlo simulations

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    A method is proposed for determining the line tension, which is the main physical characteristic of a three-phase contact region, by Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations. The key idea of the proposed method is that if a three-phase equilibrium involves a three-phase contact region, the probability distribution of states of a system as a function of two order parameters depends not only on the surface tension, but also on the line tension. This probability distribution can be obtained as a normalized histogram by appropriate MC simulations, so one can use the combination of histogram analysis and finite-size scaling to study the properties of a three phase contact region. Every histogram and results extracted therefrom will depend on the size of the simulated system. Carrying out MC simulations for a series of system sizes and extrapolating the results, obtained from the corresponding series of histograms, to infinite size, one can determine the line tension of the three phase contact region and the interfacial tensions of all three interfaces (and hence the contact angles) in an infinite system. To illustrate the proposed method, it is applied to the three-dimensional ternary fluid mixture, in which molecular pairs of like species do not interact whereas those of unlike species interact as hard spheres. The simulated results are in agreement with expectations

    Aircraft measurement of radio frequency noise at 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz and 406 MHz

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    An airborne survey measurement of terrestrial radio-frequency noise over U.S. metropolitan areas was carried out at 121.5, 243 and 406 MHz with horizontal-polarization monopole antennas. Flights were at 25,000 feet altitude. Radio-noise measurements, expressed in equivalent antenna-noise temperature, indicate a steady-background noise temperature of 572,000 K, at 121.5 MHz, during daylight over New York City. This data is helpful in compiling radio-noise temperature maps; in turn useful for designing satellite-aided, emergency-distress search and rescue communication systems
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