41 research outputs found

    Shape vs. word task using trials in which stimuli were identified as optical illusions in the shape task or as words in the word task.

    No full text
    <p>Note: R. = right, L. = left, BA = Brodmann area, dm = dorsomedial nucleus, vl = ventral lateral nucleus, p = pulvinar.</p><p>Shape vs. word task using trials in which stimuli were identified as optical illusions in the shape task or as words in the word task.</p

    Results of intra-group analyses before and after the intervention.

    No full text
    <p>Cont: control group, Ex: exercise group, ExM: exercise with music group, LM: logical memory, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, RCPM: Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, sd: standard deviation, TMT: Trail-Making Test, VSRAD: Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease, WF: word fluency, bold letters: significant.</p

    Shape task vs. baseline.

    No full text
    <p>a: shape > baseline (identified as optical illusions: <i>p</i> < 0.05, family-wise error [FWE] corrected), b: shape > baseline (not identified as optical illusions: <i>p</i> < 0.05, FWE-corrected). IFG = inferior frontal gyrus, MFG = middle frontal gyrus, Th = thalamus, MOG = middle occipital gyrus.</p

    The Effects of Physical Exercise with Music on Cognitive Function of Elderly People: Mihama-Kiho Project

    No full text
    <div><p>Background</p><p>Physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people. It is unknown, however, if combinations of non-pharmaceutical interventions can produce more benefits than single ones. This study aimed to identify if physical exercise combined with music improves cognitive function in normal elderly people more than exercise alone.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We enrolled 119 subjects (age 65–84 years old). Forty subjects performed physical exercise (once a week for an hour with professional trainers) with musical accompaniment (ExM group), developed by YAMAHA Music Foundation; 40 subjects performed the same exercise without music (Ex group); 39 subjects were the control group (Cont group). Before and after the year-long intervention, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries. MRIs were performed before and after intervention; the Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) was used to assess medial temporal lobe atrophy.</p><p>Results</p><p>Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was significant only in visuospatial function. The multiple comparison (ExM vs. Ex, ExM vs. Cont, Ex vs. Cont) was significant between the ExM and Cont group. Intra-group analyses before and after intervention revealed significant improvement in visuospatial function in the ExM group, and significant improvements in other batteries in all three groups. The VSRAD score significantly worsened in the ExM and Ex groups.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Physical exercise combined with music produced more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than exercise alone. We attributed this improvement to the multifaceted nature of combining physical exercise with music, which can act simultaneously as both cognitive and physical training.</p><p>Trial Registration</p><p>UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) <a href="https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&recptno=R000014201&type=summary&language=J" target="_blank">UMIN000012148</a></p></div

    The stimuli in the present experiment were illusory figures generated from many kana letters, which are Japanese phonograms.

    No full text
    <p>For example: (a) Müller-Lyer illusion with the Japanese phonogram “e,” (b) Jastrow illusion with the Japanese phonogram “to,” (c) Müller-Lyer illusion with the Japanese phonogram “hi,” and (d) Delboeuf illusion with the Japanese phonogram “hu.” Representation of the examples of a trial time course (e). Each stimulus appeared for 4 s, with an interstimulus interval of 9 s.</p

    Trials in which stimuli were not identified as optical illusions compared to baseline.

    No full text
    <p>Note: R. = right, L. = left, BA = Brodmann area.</p><p>Trials in which stimuli were not identified as optical illusions compared to baseline.</p

    Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the extent of changes before and after intervention in the three groups.

    No full text
    A<p>: 1 way ANOVA,</p>B<p>: Kruskal-Wallis test, Cont: control group, Ex: exercise group, ExM: exercise with music group; LM: logical memory, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, RCPM: Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, sd: standard deviation, TMT: Trail-Making Test, VSRAD: Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease; WF: word fluency; bold letters: significant.</p

    The four analyzed models having different matrix A structures (a).

    No full text
    <p>For details, see the “<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0128750#sec002" target="_blank">Materials and Methods</a>” section. Results of Bayesian model selection of the random effects design on the model levels. Model expected probability (b) and model exceedance probability (c). p = pulvinar.</p
    corecore