114 research outputs found

    Charged Excitons in the Quantum Hall Regime

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    We review our recent optical experiments on two-dimensional electron systems at temperatures below 1 K and under high magnetic fields. The two-dimensional electron systems are realized in modulation-doped GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells. Via gate electrodes the carrier density of the two-dimensional electron systems can be tuned in a quite broad range between about 1×10^{10} cm^{-2} and 2×10^{11} cm^{-2}. In dilute two-dimensional electron systems, at very low electron densities, we observe the formation of negatively charged excitons in photoluminescence experiments. In this contribution we report about the observation of a dark triplet exciton, which is observable at temperatures below 1 K and for electron filling factors <1/3, i.e., in the fractional quantum Hall regime only. In experiments where we have increased the density of the two-dimensional electron systems so that a uniform two-dimensional electron system starts to form, we have found a strong energy anomaly of the charged excitons in the vicinity of filling factor 1/3. This anomaly was found to exist in a very narrow parameter range of the density and temperature, only. We propose a model where we assume that localized charged excitons and a uniform Laughlin liquid coexist. The localized charged exciton in close proximity to the Laughlin liquid leads to the creation of a fractionally-charged quasihole in the liquid, which can account for the experimentally observed anomaly

    Imaging correlated wave functions of few-electron quantum dots: Theory and scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments

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    We show both theoretically and experimentally that scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) images of semiconductor quantum dots may display clear signatures of electron-electron correlation. We apply many-body tunneling theory to a realistic model which fully takes into account correlation effects and dot anisotropy. Comparing measured STS images of freestanding InAs quantum dots with those calculated by the full configuration interaction method, we explain the wave function sequence in terms of images of one- and two-electron states. The STS map corresponding to double charging is significantly distorted by electron correlation with respect to the non-interacting case.Comment: RevTeX 4.0, 5 pages, 3 B/W figures, 1 table. This paper is based on an invited talk presented by the authors at the 28th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, which was held 24-28 July 2006, in Vienna, Austri

    Local scale-invariance in ageing phenomena

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    Many materials quenched into their ordered phase undergo ageing and there show dynamical scaling. For any given dynamical exponent z, this can be extended to a new form of local scale-invariance which acts as a dynamical symmetry. The scaling functions of the two-time correlation and response functions of ferromagnets with a non-conserved order parameter are determined. These results are in agreement with analytical and numerical studies of various models, especially the kinetic Glauber-Ising model in 2 and 3 dimensions.Comment: Invited talk; spring meeting of the german physical society, Regensburg the 8th of March 2004, 12 pages, style file

    Thermally controlled widening of droplet etched nanoholes

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    We describe a method to control the shape of nanoholes in GaAs (001) which combines the technique of local droplet etching using Ga droplets with long-time thermal annealing. The cone-like shape of inverted nanoholes formed by droplet etching is transformed during long-time annealing into widened holes with flat bottoms and reduced depth. This is qualitatively understood using a simplified model of mass transport incorporating surface diffusion and evaporation. The hole diameter can be thermally controlled by varying the annealing time or annealing temperature which provides a method for tuning template morphology for subsequent nanostructure nucleation. We also demonstrate the integration of the combined droplet/thermal etching process with heteroepitaxy by the thermal control of hole depth in AlGaAs layers

    Dynamics of mass transport during nanohole drilling by local droplet etching

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    Local droplet etching (LDE) utilizes metal droplets during molecular beam epitaxy for the self-assembled drilling of nanoholes into III/V semiconductor surfaces. An essential process during LDE is the removal of the deposited droplet material from its initial position during post-growth annealing. This paper studies the droplet material removal experimentally and discusses the results in terms of a simple model. The first set of experiments demonstrates that the droplet material is removed by detachment of atoms and spreading over the substrate surface. Further experiments establish that droplet etching requires a small arsenic background pressure to inhibit re-attachment of the detached atoms. Surfaces processed under completely minimized As pressure show no hole formation but instead a conservation of the initial droplets. Under consideration of these results, a simple kinetic scaling model of the etching process is proposed that quantitatively reproduces experimental data on the hole depth as a function of the process temperature and deposited amount of droplet material. Furthermore, the depth dependence of the hole side-facet angle is analyzed

    Enhanced Transmission in Rolled-up Hyperlenses utilizing Fabry-Pe\'rot Resonances

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    We experimentally demonstrate that the transmission though rolled-up metal/semiconductor hyperlenses can be enhanced at desired frequencies utilizing Fabry-P\'erot resonances. By means of finite difference time domain simulations we prove that hyperlensing occurs at frequencies of high transmission.Comment: 3 pages, 3 figure

    Gain in Three-Dimensional Metamaterials utilizing Semiconductor Quantum Structures

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    We demonstrate gain in a three-dimensional metal/semiconductor metamaterial by the integration of optically active semiconductor quantum structures. The rolling-up of a metallic structure on top of strained semiconductor layers containing a quantum well allows us to achieve a three-dimensional superlattice consisting of alternating layers of lossy metallic and amplifying gain material. We show that the transmission through the superlattice can be enhanced by exciting the quantum well optically under both pulsed or continuous wave excitation. This points out that our structures can be used as a starting point for arbitrary three-dimensional metamaterials including gain
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