15 research outputs found

    Reverse electrodialysis systems comprising wafer and applications thereof

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    In one aspect, reverse electrodialysis systems are described herein having constructions operable to reduce membrane stack resistance, thereby requiring significantly less membrane surface area for meaningful electrical power generation. A reverse electrodialysis system described herein comprises an anode and cathode adjacent to a membrane stack, the membrane stack comprising alternating anion and cation exchange membranes defining diluate and concentrate ionic solution compartments, wherein an ion exchange medium is positioned in a diluate compartment

    Membrane-Based Sorbent for Heavy Metal Sequestration

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    A process is provided for making membrane-based sorbents with enhanced binding activity that are particularly useful for heavy metal sequestration. The process includes the step of selectively hydrolyzing a polyacetylated membrane in order to deacetylate a surface layer of said membrane and expose free hydroxyl groups. This is followed by the oxidizing of the hydroxyl groups to aldehyde groups. This is then followed by the attaching of a polycarboxylic acid such as a polyamino acid, polyalkenoic acid or polypeptide to the membrane through the aldehyde groups. Preferably, the hydrolyzing step is completed under alkaline conditions and the oxidizing step is completed using an aqueous solution of sodium periodate

    Method of Preparing a Composite Polymer and Silica-Based Membrane

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    A method for preparing a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating a silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane

    Preparing and Regenerating a Composite Polymer and Silica-Based Membrane

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    A method for preparing and regenerating a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating the silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane. The membrane is regenerated after metal entrapment by utilizing helix-coil properties of polyamino acids

    Silica-Based Membrane Sorbent for Heavy Metal Sequestration

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    An apparatus providing for metal ion/nitrate entrapment comprises a chemically activated, microfiltration, composite polymer and silica-based membrane including a polyamino acid attached thereto through reaction of a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with the membrane. A method for preparing such a chemically activated or polyamino acid functionalized membrane includes the steps of permeating the silica-based membrane with a solution of silane and a solvent so as to react methoxy groups of the silane with silanol groups of the membrane to incorporate epoxide groups and attaching a polyamino acid to the membrane by reacting a terminal amine group of the polyamino acid with one of the epoxide groups on the membrane

    Effects of Resin Chemistries on the Selective Removal of Industrially Relevant Metal Ions Using Wafer-Enhanced Electrodeionization

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    Wafer-enhanced electrodeionization (WE-EDI) is an electrically driven separations technology that occurs under the influence of an applied electric field and heavily depends on ion exchange resin chemistry. Unlike filtration processes, WE-EDI can be used to selectively remove ions even from high concentration systems. Because every excess ion transported increases the operating costs, the selective separation offered by WE-EDI can provide a more energy-efficient and cost-effective process, especially for highly concentrated salt solutions. This work reports the performance comparison of four commonly used cation exchange resins (Amberlite IR120 Na+, Amberlite IRP 69, Dowex MAC 3 H+, and Amberlite CG 50) and their influence on the current efficiency and selectivity for the removal of cations from a highly concentrated salt stream. The current efficiencies were high for all the resin types studied. Results also revealed that weak cation exchange resins favor the transport of the monovalent ion (Na+) while strong cation exchange resins either had no strong preference or preferred to transport the divalent ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+). Moreover, the strong cation exchange resins in powder form generally performed better in wafers than those in the bead form for the selective removal of divalent ions (selectivity > 1). To further understand the impact of particle size, resins in the bead form were ground into a powder. After grinding the strong cation resins displayed similar behavior (more consistent current efficiency and preference for transporting divalent ions) to the strong cation resins in powder form. This indicates the importance of resin size in the performance of wafers

    Development of an Integrated Salt Cartridge-Reverse Electrodialysis (Red) Device to Increase Electrolyte Concentrations to Biomedical Devices

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    Emerging technologies in nanotechnology and biomedical engineering have led to an increase in the use of implantable biomedical devices. These devices are currently battery powered which often means they must be surgically replaced during a patient’s lifetime. Therefore, there is an important need for a power source that could provide continuous, stable power over a prolonged time. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) based biopower cells have been previously used to generate continuous power from physiologically relevant fluids; however, the low salinity gradient that exists within the body limited the performance of the biopower cell. In this study, a miniaturized RED biopower cell design coupled with a salt cartridge was evaluated for boosting the salt concentration gradient supplied to RED in situ. For the salt cartridge, polysulfone (PSf) hollow fibers were prepared in-house and saturated with NaCl solutions to deliver salt and thereby enhance the concentration gradient. The effect of operational parameters including solution flow rate and cartridge salt concentration on salt transport performance was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the use of the salt cartridge was able to increase the salt concentration of the RED inlet stream by 74% which in turn generated a 3-fold increase in the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the biopower cell. This innovative adaptation of the membrane-based approach into portable power generation could help open new pathways in various biomedical applications

    Porphyridium cruentum Grown in Ultra-Filtered Swine Wastewater and Its Effects on Microalgae Growth Productivity and Fatty Acid Composition

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    Microalgae have been extensively tested for their ability to create bio-based fuels. Microalgae have also been explored as an alternative wastewater treatment solution due to their significant uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as their ability to grow in different water types. Recently, there has been significant interest in combining these two characteristics to create economic and environmentally friendly biofuel using wastewater. This study examined the growth and lipid production of the microalgae Porphyridium (P.) cruentum grown in swine wastewater (ultra-filtered and raw) as compared with control media (L−1, modified f/2) at two different salt concentrations (seawater and saltwater). The cultivation of P. cruentum in the treated swine wastewater media (seawater = 5.18 ± 2.3 mgL−1day−1, saltwater = 3.32 ± 1.93 mgL−1day−1) resulted in a statistically similar biomass productivity compared to the control medium (seawater = 2.61 ± 2.47 mgL−1day−1, saltwater = 6.53 ± 0.81 mgL−1day−1) at the corresponding salt concentration. Furthermore, no major differences between the fatty acid compositions of microalgae in the treated swine wastewater medium and the control medium were observed. For all conditions, saturated acids were present in the highest amounts (≥67%), followed by polyunsaturated (≤22%) and finally monounsaturated (≤12%). This is the first study to find that P. cruentum could be used to remediate wastewater and then be turned into fuel by using swine wastewater with a similar productivity to the microalgae grown in control media

    Enhancing rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed shell biochar through acid-base modification for effective phenol removal from aqueous environments

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    This work encompasses using acid-base modified rubber seed shell biochar (RSSB) as an adsorption approach to eradicate phenol from aqueous mediums. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used pre-pyrolysis to modify the RSS, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used post-pyrolysis to modify the RSSB. The methodology was divided into three stages: RSS pretreatment, RSS base-modification and pyrolysis, and RSSB acid-modification and processing. Temperature, pH and several other factors were investigated for their impacts on the adsorbent, and optimal conditions were established at pH 6, 1.0¬†g of rubber seed shell biochar (RSSB), 50¬†mg/L initial concentration, 120¬†min contact time, and 30¬†¬įC temperature. The highest phenol removal efficiency was recorded at 97.21¬†% using the RSSB-700 adsorbent. Thermodynamic, kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out on the adsorbents using the non-linear modelling approach. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was declared optimal because the adsorption rate closely followed it, with minimal difference between the experimental and computed values. The maximum RSSB adsorption capacity is 13.32¬†mg/g, according to the equilibrium results, which follow the Langmuir isotherm equation. Thus, the aim of this research and all documented objectives have been fulfilled
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