54 research outputs found

    Loss of control over eating : A systematic review of task based research into impulsive and compulsive processes in binge eating  

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    Recurring episodes of excessive food intake in binge eating disorder can be understood through the lens of behavioral control systems: patients repeat maladaptive behaviors against their explicit intent. Self-report measures show enhanced impulsivity and compulsivity in binge eating (BE) but are agnostic as to the processes that might lead to impulsive and compulsive behavior in the moment. Task-based neurocognitive investigations can tap into those processes. In this systematic review, we synthesize neurocognitive research on behavioral impulsivity and compulsivity in BE in humans and animals, published between 2010-2020. Findings on impulsivity are heterogeneous. Findings on compulsivity are sparse but comparatively consistent, indicating an imbalance of goal-directed and habitual control as well as deficits in reversal learning. We urge researchers to address heterogeneity related to mood states and the temporal dynamics of symptoms, to systematically differentiate contributions of body weight and BE, and to ascertain the validity and reliability of tasks. Moreover, we propose to further scrutinize the compulsivity findings to unravel the computational mechanisms of a potential reinforcement learning deficit.Peer reviewe

    Self-reported intake of high-fat and high-sugar diet is not associated with cognitive stability and flexibility in healthy men

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    Animal studies indicate that a high-fat/high-sugar diet (HFS) can change dopamine signal transmission in the brain, which could promote maladaptive behavior and decision-making. Such diet-induced changes may also explain observed alterations in the dopamine system in human obesity. Genetic variants that modulate dopamine transmission have been proposed to render some individuals more prone to potential effects of HFS. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of HFS with dopamine-dependent cognition in humans and how genetic variations might modulate this potential association. Using a questionnaire assessing the self -reported consumption of high-fat/high-sugar foods, we investigated the association with diet by recruiting healthy young men that fall into the lower or upper end of that questionnaire (low fat/sugar group: LFS, n = 45; high fat/sugar group: HFS, n = 41) and explored the interaction of fat and sugar consumption with COMT Va1158Met and Taq1A genotype. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, male partici-pants performed a working memory (WM) task that probes distractor-resistance and updating of WM repre-sentations. Logistic and linear regression models revealed no significant difference in WM performance between the two diet groups, nor an interaction with COMT Va1t58Met or Tag1A genotype. Neural activation in task -related brain areas also did not differ between diet groups. Independent of diet group, higher BMI was associ-ated with lower overall accuracy on the WM task. This cross-sectional study does not provide evidence for diet -related differences in WM stability and flexibility in men, nor for a predisposition of COMT Va1158Met or Tag1A genotype to the hypothesized detrimental effects of an HFS diet. Previously reported associations of BMI with WM seem to be independent of HFS intake in our male study sample.Peer reviewe

    Lost in Translation? On the Need for Convergence in Animal and Human Studies on the Role of Dopamine in Diet-Induced Obesity

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    Purpose of Review: Animal and human studies suggest that diet-induced obesity and plasticity in the central dopaminergic system are linked. However, it is unclear whether observed changes depend on diet or obesity, and whether they are specific to brain regions and cognitive functions. Here, we focus on neural and cognitive changes in frontostriatal circuits. Recent Findings: Both diet and obesity affect dopaminergic transmission. However, site and direction of effects are inconsistent across species and studies. Non-specific changes are observed spanning all frontostriatal loops, from sensory input to motivated behaviour. Given the impact of peripheral signals on central dopaminergic signalling and the interaction between the frontostriatal loops, modulation of dopamine likely propagates through all loops and, thus, affects behaviour on various levels of complexity. Summary: To improve convergence between animal and human studies on diet-induced obesity, animal studies should include sophisticated cognitive measures and diets resembling human obesogenic diets, and human studies should adopt diet interventions and longitudinal designs.Peer reviewe

    Intravital FRAP imaging using an E-cadherin-GFP mouse reveals disease- and drug-dependent dynamic regulation of cell-cell junctions in live tissue

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    E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions play a prominent role in maintaining the epithelial architecture. The disruption or deregulation of these adhesions in cancer can lead to the collapse of tumor epithelia that precedes invasion and subsequent metastasis. Here we generated an E-cadherin-GFP mouse that enables intravital photobleaching and quantification of E-cadherin mobility in live tissue without affecting normal biology. We demonstrate the broad applications of this mouse by examining E-cadherin regulation in multiple tissues, including mammary, brain, liver, and kidney tissue, while specifically monitoring E-cadherin mobility during disease progression in the pancreas. We assess E-cadherin stability in native pancreatic tissue upon genetic manipulation involving Kras and p53 or in response to anti-invasive drug treatment and gain insights into the dynamic remodeling of E-cadherin during in situ cancer progression. FRAP in the E-cadherin-GFP mouse, therefore, promises to be a valuable tool to fundamentally expand our understanding of E-cadherin-mediated events in native microenvironments

    Marginal zone lymphoma complicated by protein losing enteropathy

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    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) refers to excessive intestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Underlying pathologies include conditions leading to either reduced intestinal barrier or lymphatic congestion. We describe the case of a patient with long-lasting diffuse abdominal problems and PLE. Repetitive endoscopies were normal with only minimal lymphangiectasia in biopsies. Further evaluations revealed an indolent marginal zone lymphoma with minor bone marrow infiltration. Monotherapy with rituximab decreased bone marrow infiltration of the lymphoma but did not relieve PLE. Additional treatments with steroids, octreotide, a diet devoid of long-chain fatty-acids, and parenteral nutrition did not prevent further clinical deterioration with marked weight loss (23 kg), further reduction in albumin concentrations (nadir 8 g/L), and a pronounced drop in performance status. Finally, immunochemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine resulted in hematological remission and remarkable clinical improvement. 18 months after therapy the patient remains free of gastrointestinal complaints and has regained his body weight with normal albumin levels. We demonstrate a case of PLE secondary to indolent marginal zone lymphoma. No intestinal pathologies were detected, contrasting a severe and almost lethal clinical course. Immunochemotherapy relieved lymphoma and PLE, suggesting that a high suspicion of lymphoma is warranted in otherwise unexplained cases of PLE

    A multi-center study of their physicochemical characteristics, cell culture and in vivo experiments

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    PVP-capped silver nanoparticles with a diameter of the metallic core of 70 nm, a hydrodynamic diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of −20 mV were prepared and investigated with regard to their biological activity. This review summarizes the physicochemical properties (dissolution, protein adsorption, dispersability) of these nanoparticles and the cellular consequences of the exposure of a broad range of biological test systems to this defined type of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles dissolve in water in the presence of oxygen. In addition, in biological media (i.e., in the presence of proteins) the surface of silver nanoparticles is rapidly coated by a protein corona that influences their physicochemical and biological properties including cellular uptake. Silver nanoparticles are taken up by cell-type specific endocytosis pathways as demonstrated for hMSC, primary T-cells, primary monocytes, and astrocytes. A visualization of particles inside cells is possible by X-ray microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and combined FIB/SEM analysis. By staining organelles, their localization inside the cell can be additionally determined. While primary brain astrocytes are shown to be fairly tolerant toward silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles induce the formation of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSB) and lead to chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster fibroblast cell lines (CHO9, K1, V79B). An exposure of rats to silver nanoparticles in vivo induced a moderate pulmonary toxicity, however, only at rather high concentrations. The same was found in precision-cut lung slices of rats in which silver nanoparticles remained mainly at the tissue surface. In a human 3D triple-cell culture model consisting of three cell types (alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells), adverse effects were also only found at high silver concentrations. The silver ions that are released from silver nanoparticles may be harmful to skin with disrupted barrier (e.g., wounds) and induce oxidative stress in skin cells (HaCaT). In conclusion, the data obtained on the effects of this well-defined type of silver nanoparticles on various biological systems clearly demonstrate that cell-type specific properties as well as experimental conditions determine the biocompatibility of and the cellular responses to an exposure with silver nanoparticles

    The Amino-Terminus of Nitric Oxide Sensitive Guanylyl Cyclase α1 Does Not Affect Dimerization but Influences Subcellular Localization

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    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme formed by an α- and a β₁-subunit. A splice variant (C-α₁) of the α₁-subunit, lacking at least the first 236 amino acids has been described by Sharina et al. 2008 and has been shown to be expressed in differentiating human embryonic cells. Wagner et al. 2005 have shown that the amino acids 61-128 of the α₁-subunit are mandatory for quantitative heterodimerization implying that the C-α₁-splice variant should lose its capacity to dimerize quantitatively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study we demonstrate preserved quantitative dimerization of the C-α₁-splice by co-purification with the β₁-subunit. In addition we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based on fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) using fusion proteins of the β₁-subunit and the α₁-subunit or the C-α₁ variant with ECFP or EYFP. Analysis of the respective combinations in HEK-293 cells showed that the fluorescence lifetime was significantly shorter (≈0.3 ns) for α₁/β₁ and C-α₁/β₁ than the negative control. In addition we show that lack of the amino-terminus in the α₁ splice variant directs it to a more oxidized subcellular compartment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the amino-terminus of the α₁-subunit is dispensable for dimerization in-vivo and ex-vivo, but influences the subcellular trafficking

    Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer

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    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10−8) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction

    Functional mechanisms underlying pleiotropic risk alleles at the 19p13.1 breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility locus

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    A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10-20), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10-13), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10-16) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10-5). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10-3) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10-3). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3′-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk

    Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

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    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7×10-8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4×10-8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4×10-8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific associat
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