462 research outputs found

    Nonextensive statistical mechanics and central limit theorems II - Convolution of q-independent random variables

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    In this article we review recent generalisations of the central limit theorem for the sum of specially correlated (or q-independent) variables, focusing on q greater or equal than 1. Specifically, this kind of correlation turns the probability density function known as q-Gaussian, which emerges upon maximisation of the entropy Sq, into an attractor in probability space. Moreover, we also discuss a q-generalisation of a-stable Levy distributions which can as well be stable for this special kind of correlation.Within this context, we verify the emergence of a triplet of entropic indices which relate the form of the attractor, the correlation, and the scaling rate, similar to the q-triplet that connects the entropic indices characterising the sensitivity to initial conditions, the stationary state, and relaxation to the stationary state in anomalous systems.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, and 1 table. To appear in the Proceedings of the conference CTNEXT07, Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity, Catania, Italy, 1-5 July 2007, Eds. S. Abe, H.J. Herrmann, P. Quarati, A. Rapisarda and C. Tsallis (American Institute of Physics, 2008) in pres

    Nonextensive statistical mechanics and central limit theorems I - Convolution of independent random variables and q-product

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    In this article we review the standard versions of the Central and of the Levy-Gnedenko Limit Theorems, and illustrate their application to the convolution of independent random variables associated with the distribution known as q-Gaussian. This distribution emerges upon extremisation of the nonadditive entropy, basis of nonextensive statistical mechanics. It has a finite variance for q 5/3. We exhibit that, in the case of (standard) independence, the q-Gaussian has either the Gaussian (if q 5/3) as its attractor in probability space. Moreover, we review a generalisation of the product, the q-product, which plays a central role in the approach of the specially correlated variables emerging within the nonextensive theory.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figures. To appear in the Proceedings of the conference CTNEXT07, Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity, Catania, Italy, 1-5 July 2007, Eds. S. Abe, H.J. Herrmann, P. Quarati, A. Rapisarda and C. Tsallis (American Institute of Physics, 2008) in pres

    On the nonextensive character of some magnetic systems

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    During the past few years, nonextensive statistics has been successfully applied to explain many different kinds of systems. Through these studies some interpretations of the entropic parameter q, which has major role in this statistics, in terms of physical quantities have been obtained. The aim of the present work is to yield an overview of the applications of nonextensive statistics to complex problems such as inhomogeneous magnetic systems.Comment: to appear in the Proceedings of the conference CTNEXT07, Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity, Catania, Italy, 1-5 July 2007, Eds. S. Abe, H.J. Herrmann, P. Quarati, A. Rapisarda and C. Tsallis (American Institute of Physics, 2007) in pres

    Dynamics of Fractures in Quenched Disordered Media

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    We introduce a model for fractures in quenched disordered media. This model has a deterministic extremal dynamics, driven by the energy function of a network of springs (Born Hamiltonian). The breakdown is the result of the cooperation between the external field and the quenched disorder. This model can be considered as describing the low temperature limit for crack propagation in solids. To describe the memory effects in this dynamics, and then to study the resistance properties of the system we realized some numerical simulations of the model. The model exhibits interesting geometric and dynamical properties, with a strong reduction of the fractal dimension of the clusters and of their backbone, with respect to the case in which thermal fluctuations dominate. This result can be explained by a recently introduced theoretical tool as a screening enhancement due to memory effects induced by the quenched disorder.Comment: 7 pages, 9 Postscript figures, uses revtex psfig.sty, to be published on Phys. Rev.

    “We don't need no (higher) education” - How the gig economy challenges the education-income paradigm

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    The empirical relationship between educational attainment and pay levels has been widely acknowledged in the labour-economic and labour-sociology literatures. While the causalities underlying this relationship are not conclusively established, researchers broadly agree that higher educational attainment leads to higher income levels in dependent employment, temporary hiring, and freelancing alike. The ‘gig economy’, where workers complete jobs mediated by online platforms, challenges this paradigm as gig workers can access jobs without any educational certificates. Building a theoretical framework based on agency-driven accounts, we investigate whether we can empirically observe a relationship between educational attainment and wage levels in the gig economy. Our OLS regression analyses of 1607 gig workers in 14 Western economies illustrate no statistically significant correlation. Instead, the platform's review system as well as the gig workers' level of previous job experience serve as the major signalling mechanisms that help to reduce information asymmetry. Qualitative insights gained from in-depth interviews explain this finding by revealing how gig workers gain the necessary qualifications for their jobs, most importantly, through self-study, learning-by-doing, and trial-and-error processes. Our findings therefore point out that advanced educational credentials are only of limited use for gig workers

    Development of a routinely applicable imaging protocol for fast and precise middle cerebral artery occlusion assessment and perfusion deficit measure in an ovine stroke model : a case study

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    Temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in sheep allows modeling of acute large vessel occlusion stroke and subsequent vessel recanalization. However, rapid and precise imaging-based assessment of vessel occlusion and the resulting perfusion deficit during MCAO still represents an experimental challenge. Here, we tested feasibility and suitability of a strategy for MCAO verification and perfusion deficit assessment. We also compared the extent of the initial perfusion deficit and subsequent lesion size for different MCAO durations. The rete mirabile prevents reliable vascular imaging investigation of middle cerebral artery filling status. Hence, computed tomography perfusion imaging was chosen for indirect confirmation of MCAO. Follow-up infarct size evaluation by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed fluctuating results, with no apparent relationship of lesion size with MCAO at occlusion times below 4 h, potentially related to the variable collateralization of the MCA territory. This underlines the need for intra-ischemic perfusion assessment and future studies focusing on the correlation between perfusion deficit, MCAO duration, and final infarct volume. Temporary MCAO and intra-ischemic perfusion imaging nevertheless has the potential to be applied for the simulation of novel recanalization therapies, particularly those that aim for a fast reperfusion effect in combination with mechanical thrombectomy in a clinically realistic scenario

    A new mouse model of radiation-induced liver disease reveals mitochondrial dysfunction as an underlying fibrotic stimulus.

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    Background & Aims High-dose irradiation is an essential tool to help control the growth of hepatic tumors, but it can cause radiation-induced liver disease (RILD). This life-threatening complication manifests itself months following radiation therapy and is characterized by fibrosis of the pericentral sinusoids. In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of RILD to investigate the underlying mechanism of radiation-induced liver fibrosis. Methods Using a small animal image-guided radiation therapy platform, an irradiation scheme delivering 50 Gy as a single dose to a focal point in mouse livers was designed. Tissues were analyzed 1 and 6 days, and 6 and 20 weeks post-irradiation. Irradiated livers were assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry, imaging mass cytometry and RNA sequencing. Mitochondrial function was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. Results At 6 and 20 weeks post-irradiation, pericentral fibrosis was visible in highly irradiated areas together with immune cell infiltration and extravasation of red blood cells. RNA sequencing analysis showed gene signatures associated with acute DNA damage, p53 activation, senescence and its associated secretory phenotype and fibrosis. Moreover, gene profiles of mitochondrial damage and an increase in mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy were detected. Respirometry measurements of hepatocytes in vitro confirmed irradiation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, the highly irradiated fibrotic areas showed markers of reactive oxygen species such as decreased glutathione and increased lipid peroxides and a senescence-like phenotype. Conclusions Based on our mouse model of RILD, we propose that irradiation-induced mitochondrial DNA instability contributes to the development of fibrosis via the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species, p53 pathway activation and a senescence-like phenotype. Lay summary Irradiation is an efficient cancer therapy, however, its applicability to the liver is limited by life-threatening radiation-induced hepatic fibrosis. We have developed a new mouse model of radiation-induced liver fibrosis, that recapitulates the human disease. Our model highlights the role of mitochondrial DNA instability in the development of irradiation-induced liver fibrosis. This new model and subsequent findings will help increase our understanding of the hepatic reaction to irradiation and to find strategies that protect the liver, enabling the expanded use of radiotherapy to treat hepatic tumors

    The Effect of an Infant Formula Supplemented with AA and DHA on Fatty Acid Levels of Infants with Different FADS Genotypes: The COGNIS Study

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    Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes influence the arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid concentrations (crucial in early life). Infants with specific genotypes may require different amounts of these fatty acids (FAs) to maintain an adequate status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with AA and DHA on FAs of infants with different FADS genotypes. In total, 176 infants from the COGNIS study were randomly allocated to the Standard Formula (SF; n = 61) or the Experimental Formula (EF; n = 70) group, the latter supplemented with AA and DHA. Breastfed infants were added as a reference group (BF; n = 45). FAs and FADS polymorphisms were analyzed from cheek cells collected at 3 months of age. FADS minor allele carriership in formula fed infants, especially those supplemented, was associated with a declined desaturase activity and lower AA and DHA levels. Breastfed infants were not affected, possibly to the high content of AA and DHA in breast milk. The supplementation increased AA and DHA levels, but mostly in major allele carriers. In conclusion, infant FADS genotype could contribute to narrow the gap of AA and DHA concentrations between breastfed and formula fed infants.This research was funded by ORDESA Laboratories, S.L., Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, NEOBEFOOD Project (2010–2013) and SMARTFOODS Project (2014–2018)—CIEN Strategy (Ministry of Innovation and Science-CDTI) through 2 different contracts established between Ordesa Laboratories and the University of Granada General Foundation (ref. nº3349 and nº4003, respectively) and between Ordesa Laboratories and the Bosch Gimpera Foundation/University of Barcelona (ref. n 306811 and 308516). The project was partially funded by EU Project DynaHEALTH (HORIZON 2020-GA No.633595)

    Multiplicities of charged pions and unidentified charged hadrons from deep-inelastic scattering of muons off an isoscalar target

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    Multiplicities of charged pions and unidentified hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering were measured in bins of the Bjorken scaling variable xx, the relative virtual-photon energy yy and the relative hadron energy zz. Data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using a 160 GeV muon beam and an isoscalar target (6^6LiD). They cover the kinematic domain in the photon virtuality Q2Q^2 > 1(GeV/c)2)^2, 0.004<x<0.40.004 < x < 0.4, 0.2<z<0.850.2 < z < 0.85 and 0.1<y<0.70.1 < y < 0.7. In addition, a leading-order pQCD analysis was performed using the pion multiplicity results to extract quark fragmentation functions

    Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

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    We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η\eta|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2< pTp_{\rm T}< 5.0 GeV/cc. The elliptic flow signal v2_2, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.004 (syst) in the 40-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v2(pT)_2(p_{\rm T}) reaches a maximum of 0.2 near pTp_{\rm T} = 3 GeV/cc. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.Comment: 10 pages, 4 captioned figures, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/389
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