8,473 research outputs found

    Creative Renewal of the Son Jarocho Fandango in Los Angeles

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    The ontology of temperature in nonequilibrium systems

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    The laws of thermodynamics provide a clear concept of the temperature for an equilibrium system in the continuum limit. Meanwhile, the equipartition theorem allows one to make a connection between the ensemble average of the kinetic energy and the uniform temperature. When a system or its environment is far from equilibrium, however, such an association does not necessarily apply. In small systems, the regression hypothesis may not even apply. Herein, we show that in small nonequilibrium systems, the regression hypothesis still holds though with a generalized definition of the temperature. The latter must now be defined for each such manifestation.Comment: J.Chem.Phys. (in press); 23 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl

    Variable changes in nematode infection prevalence and intensity after Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus emerged in wild rabbits in Scotland and New Zealand

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    The myxoma virus (a microparasite) reduced wild rabbit numbers worldwide when introduced in the 1950s, and is known to interact with co-infecting helminths (macroparasites) causing both increases and decreases in macroparasite population size. In the 1990s Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) infected rabbits and also significantly reduced rabbit numbers in several countries. However, not much is known about RHDV interactions with macroparasites. In this study, we compare prevalence and intensity of infection for three gastrointestinal nematode species (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Graphidium strigosum and Passalurus ambiguus) before and after RHDV spread across host populations in Scotland and New Zealand. During one common season, autumn, prevalence of T. retortaeformis was higher after RHDV spread in both locations, whereas it was lower for G. strigosum and P. ambiguus after RHDV arrived in New Zealand, but higher in Scotland. Meanwhile, intensity of infection for all species decreased after RHDV arrived in New Zealand, but increased in Scotland. The impact of RHDV on worm infections was generally similar across seasons in Scotland, and also similarities in seasonality between locations suggested effects on infection patterns in one season are likely similar year-round. The variable response by macroparasites to the arrival of a microparasite into Scottish and New Zealand rabbits may be due to differences in the environment they inhabit, in existing parasite community structure, and to some extent, in the relative magnitude of indirect effects. Specifically, our data suggest that bottom-up processes after the introduction of a more virulent strain of RHDV to New Zealand may affect macroparasite co-infections by reducing the availability of their shared common resource, the rabbits. Clearly, interactions between co-infecting micro- and macroparasites vary in host populations with different ecologies, and significantly impact parasite community structure in wildlife. Keywords: Co-infection, Community ecology, European rabbit, Helminth, Macroparasite, Microparasite, RHDV, Virus, Within-host ecolog

    Extended thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban in acutely ill medical patients

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    BACKGROUND: Patients with acute medical illnesses are at prolonged risk for venous thrombosis. However, the appropriate duration of thromboprophylaxis remains unknown. METHODS: Patients who were hospitalized for acute medical illnesses were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous enoxaparin (at a dose of 40 mg once daily) for 10┬▒4 days plus oral betrixaban placebo for 35 to 42 days or subcutaneous enoxaparin placebo for 10┬▒4 days plus oral betrixaban (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) for 35 to 42 days. We performed sequential analyses in three prespecified, progressively inclusive cohorts: patients with an elevated d-dimer level (cohort 1), patients with an elevated d-dimer level or an age of at least 75 years (cohort 2), and all the enrolled patients (overall population cohort). The statistical analysis plan specified that if the between-group difference in any analysis in this sequence was not significant, the other analyses would be considered exploratory. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of asymptomatic proximal deep-vein thrombosis and symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 7513 patients underwent randomization. In cohort 1, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 6.9% of patients receiving betrixaban and 8.5% receiving enoxaparin (relative risk in the betrixaban group, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 1.00; P=0.054). The rates were 5.6% and 7.1%, respectively (relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.98; P=0.03) in cohort 2 and 5.3% and 7.0% (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.92; P=0.006) in the overall population. (The last two analyses were considered to be exploratory owing to the result in cohort 1.) In the overall population, major bleeding occurred in 0.7% of the betrixaban group and 0.6% of the enoxaparin group (relative risk, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.12; P=0.55). CONCLUSIONS: Among acutely ill medical patients with an elevated d-dimer level, there was no significant difference between extended-duration betrixaban and a standard regimen of enoxaparin in the prespecified primary efficacy outcome. However, prespecified exploratory analyses provided evidence suggesting a benefit for betrixaban in the two larger cohorts. (Funded by Portola Pharmaceuticals; APEX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01583218.)

    Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurements (Δ\u27\u3csup\u3e17\u3c/sup\u3eO) of Body Water Reflect Water Intake, Metabolism, and δ\u3csup\u3e18\u3c/sup\u3eO of Ingested Water in Passerines

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    Understanding physiological traits and ecological conditions that influence a species reliance on metabolic water is critical to creating accurate physiological models that can assess their ability to adapt to environmental perturbations (e.g., drought) that impact water availability. However, relatively few studies have examined variation in the sources of water animals use to maintain water balance, and even fewer have focused on the role of metabolic water. A key reason is methodological limitations. Here, we applied a new method that measures the triple oxygen isotopic composition of a single blood sample to estimate the contribution of metabolic water to the body water pool of three passerine species. This approach relies on ╬ö\u2717O, defined as the residual from the tight linear correlation that naturally exists between ╬┤17O and ╬┤18O values. Importantly, ╬ö\u2717O is relatively insensitive to key fractionation processes, such as Rayleigh distillation in the water cycle that have hindered previous isotope-based assessments of animal water balance. We evaluated the effects of changes in metabolic rate and water intake on ╬ö\u2717O values of captive rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) and two invertivorous passerine species in the genus Cinclodes from the field. As predicted, colder acclimation temperatures induced increases in metabolic rate, decreases in water intake, and increases in the contribution of metabolic water to the body water pool of Z. capensis, causing a consistent change in ╬ö\u2717O. Measurement of ╬ö\u2717O also provides an estimate of the ╬┤18O composition of ingested pre-formed (drinking/food) water. Estimated ╬┤18O values of drinking/food water for captive Z. capensis were ~ Ôłĺ11ÔÇ░, which is consistent with that of tap water in Santiago, Chile. In contrast, ╬┤18O values of drinking/food water ingested by wild-caught Cinclodeswere similar to that of seawater, which is consistent with their reliance on marine resources. Our results confirm the utility of this method for quantifying the relative contribution of metabolic versus pre-formed drinking/food water to the body water pool in birds

    Arteriovenous uterine malformation: case report

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    The case of a 49-year-old patient is reported, with a particular history of obstetric risk, who presented with severe transvaginal hemorrhage, was performed doppler arteriography and ultrasound, finding data suggestive of arteriovenous uterine malformation, surgery was decided due to heavy menstrual bleeding with anemia, the pathology report shows characteristics of an arteriovenous uterine malformation

    Chronic cochlear implantation with and without electric stimulation in a mouse model induces robust cochlear influx of CX3CR1+/GFP macrophages

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    BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation is an effective auditory rehabilitation strategy for those with profound hearing loss, including those with residual low frequency hearing through use of hybrid cochlear implantation techniques. Post-mortem studies demonstrate the nearly ubiquitous presence of intracochlear fibrosis and neo-ossification following cochlear implantation. Current evidence suggests post-implantation intracochlear fibrosis is associated with delayed loss of residual acoustic hearing in hybrid cochlear implant (CI) recipients and may also negatively influence outcomes in traditional CI recipients. This study examined the contributions of surgical trauma, foreign body response and electric stimulation to intracochlear fibrosis and the innate immune response to cochlear implantation and the hierarchy of these contributions. METHODS: Normal hearing CX3CR1 RESULTS: A ST peri-implant cellular infiltrate and fibrosis occurred exclusively in the chronically implanted groups starting on day 7 with a concurrent infiltration of CX3CR1+ macrophages not seen in the other groups. CX3CR1+ macrophage infiltration was seen in the LW and RC in all experimental groups within the first week, being most prominent in the 3 chronically implanted groups during the second and third week. CONCLUSIONS: The cochlear immune response was most prominent in the presence of chronic cochlear implantation, regardless of electric stimulation level. Further, the development of intracochlear ST fibrosis was dependent on the presence of the indwelling CI foreign body. An innate immune response was evoked by surgical trauma alone (sham and acute CI groups) to a lesser degree. These data suggest that cochlear inflammation and intrascalar fibrosis after cochlear implantation are largely dependent on the presence of a chronic indwelling foreign body and are not critically dependent on electrical stimulation. Also, these data support a role for surgical trauma in inciting the initial innate immune response
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