10 research outputs found

    Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Complicating Therapy With Inotersen, an Antisense Oligonucleotide Inhibitor: A Case Report

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    Inotersen is an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor licensed for the treatment of polyneuropathy complicating hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv). Nephrotoxicity has been reported with inotersen, including progression to end stage renal disease. We describe the first reported case of inotersen-associated nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and review the literature concerning inotersen-induced nephrotoxicity. We report a woman in her early 30s with ATTRv associated with the (p.V50M) transthyretin (TTR) variant, who presented with nephrotic syndrome 7 months after commencement of inotersen. Renal histology demonstrated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and scanty glomerular amyloid deposition. Discontinuation of inotersen alone resulted in complete clinical and biochemical resolution of nephrotic syndrome. Inotersen is associated with significant nephrotoxicity. In the phase III NEURO-TTR clinical trial, 3% of patients in the treatment arm developed a crescentic glomerulonephritis. All affected patients carried the (p.V50M) TTR variant which is known to be associated with renal amyloid deposition. This case adds to spectrum of renal disease associated with inotersen and indicates that discontinuation of the drug alone may result in resolution of renal complications without additional immunosuppression. Monitoring of renal function is essential in patients with ATTRv receiving inotersen, particularly if there is evidence of existing renal amyloid

    Parallel Optimisation of Potency and Pharmacokinetics Leading to the Discovery of a Pyrrole Carboxamide ERK5 Chemical Tool

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    [Image: see text] The nonclassical extracellular signal-related kinase 5 (ERK5) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway has been implicated in increased cellular proliferation, migration, survival, and angiogenesis; hence, ERK5 inhibition may be an attractive approach for cancer treatment. However, the development of selective ERK5 inhibitors has been challenging. Previously, we described the development of a pyrrole carboxamide high-throughput screening hit into a selective, submicromolar inhibitor of ERK5 kinase activity. Improvement in the ERK5 potency was necessary for the identification of a tool ERK5 inhibitor for target validation studies. Herein, we describe the optimization of this series to identify nanomolar pyrrole carboxamide inhibitors of ERK5 incorporating a basic center, which suffered from poor oral bioavailability. Parallel optimization of potency and in vitro pharmacokinetic parameters led to the identification of a nonbasic pyrazole analogue with an optimal balance of ERK5 inhibition and oral exposure

    Secondary Membranous Nephropathy Due to Benign Tumors in 2 Young Women: A Case Report

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    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is one of the most common causes of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome. We describe the cases of 2 young women in their 20s presenting with nephrotic syndrome due to antiphospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R)\u2013negative MN, that was found to be associated with benign tumors. Both women had no extrarenal symptoms of a connective tissue disease, infection, or malignancy. They both had been previously healthy and were not receiving treatment with any drugs. Both had MN on kidney biopsy. Biopsies were negative for PLA2R antigen, and their serum did not demonstrate the presence of anti-PLA2R antibodies. Both were investigated for a secondary cause on the basis of negative anti-PLA2R serology and biopsy features supportive of secondary MN and were found to have benign tumors on radioimaging: a uterine leiomyoma and mesenteric fibromatosis, respectively. In both instances, the nephrotic syndrome remitted following resection of the tumors. To our knowledge, uterine leiomyoma and mesenteric fibromatosis have not previously been described in association with MN. These cases highlight the importance of pursuing a secondary cause of MN in patients without anti- PLA2R antibodies in serum or PLA2R antigen on kidney biopsy

    Identification of biomarkers to stratify response to B cell targeted therapies in a randomized trial for systemic lupus erythematosus

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    BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease associated with widespread immune dysregulation and diverse clinical features. Immune abnormalities might be differentially associated with specific organ involvement or response to targeted therapies. We aimed to identify biomarkers of response to belimumab after rituximab to facilitate a personalised approach to therapy. METHODS: In this exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial (BEAT-LUPUS), we investigated immune profiles of patients with SLE recruited to the 52-week clinical trial, which tested the combination of rituximab plus belimumab versus rituximab plus placebo. We used machine learning and conventional statistics to investigate relevant laboratory and clinical biomarkers associated with major clinical response. BEAT LUPUS is registered at ISRCTN, 47873003, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Feb 2, 2017, and March 28, 2019, 52 patients were recruited to BEAT-LUPUS, of whom 44 provided clinical data at week 52 and were included in this analysis. 21 (48%) of 44 participants were in the belimumab group (mean age 39┬Ě5 years [SD 12┬Ě1]; 17 [81%] were female, four [19%] were male, 13 [62%] were White) and 23 (52%) were in the placebo group (mean age 42┬Ě1 years [SD 10┬Ě5]; 21 [91%] were female, two [9%] were male, 16 [70%] were White). Ten (48%) of 21 participants who received belimumab after rituximab and eight (35%) of 23 who received placebo after rituximab had a major clinical response at 52 weeks (between-group difference of 13% [95% CI ÔÇô15 to 38]). We found a predictive association between baseline serum IgA2 anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody concentrations and clinical response to belimumab after rituximab, with a between-group difference in major clinical response of 48% (95% CI 10 to 70) in patients with elevated baseline serum IgA2 anti-dsDNA antibody concentrations. Moreover, among those who had a major clinical response, serum IgA2 anti-dsDNA antibody concentrations significantly decreased from baseline only in the belimumab group. Increased circulating IgA2 (but not total) plasmablast numbers, and T follicular helper cell numbers predicted clinical response and were both reduced only in patients who responded to belimumab after rituximab. Serum IgA2 anti-dsDNA antibody concentrations were also associated with active renal disease, whereas serum IgA1 anti-dsDNA antibody and IFN-╬▒ concentrations were associated with mucocutaneous disease activity but did not predict response to B-cell targeted therapy. Patients with a high baseline serum interleukin-6 concentration were less likely to have a major clinical response, irrespective of therapy. INTERPRETATION: This exploratory study revealed the presence of distinct molecular networks associated with renal and mucocutaneous involvement, and response to B-cell-targeted therapies, which, if confirmed, could guide precision targeting of advanced therapies for this heterogenous disease. FUNDING: Versus Arthritis, UCLH Biomedical Research Centre, LUPUS UK, and GSK

    Parallel Optimisation of Potency and Pharmacokinetics Leading to the Discovery of a Pyrrole Carboxamide ERK5 Kinase Domain Inhibitor

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    The non-classical extracellular signal-related kinase 5 (ERK5) mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway has been implicated in increased cellular proliferation, migration, survival and angiogenesis, hence ERK5 inhibition may be an attractive approach for cancer treatment. However, development of selective ERK5 inhibitors has been challenging. Previously, we described the development of a pyrrole-carboxamide high-throughput screening hit into a selective, submicromolar inhibitor of ERK5 kinase activity. Improvement in the ERK5 potency was necessary for the identification of a tool ERK5 inhibitor for target validation studies. Herein, we describe the optimisation of this series to identify nanomolar pyrrole carboxamide inhibitors of ERK5 incorporating a basic centre, which suffered from poor oral bioavailability. Parallel optimisation of potency and in vitro pharmacokinetic parameters led to the identification of a non-basic pyrazole analogue with an optimal balance of ERK5 inhibition and oral exposure

    Identification of a novel orally bioavailable ERK5 inhibitor with selectivity over p38╬▒ and BRD4

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    Extracellular regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) signalling has been implicated in driving a number of cellular phenotypes including endothelial cell angiogenesis and tumour cell motility. Novel ERK5 inhibitors were identified using high throughput screening, with a series of pyrrole-2-carboxamides substituted at the 4-position with an aroyl group being found to exhibit IC 50 values in the micromolar range, but having no selectivity against p38╬▒ MAP kinase. Truncation of the N-substituent marginally enhanced potency (Ôł╝3-fold) against ERK5, but importantly attenuated inhibition of p38╬▒. Systematic variation of the substituents on the aroyl group led to the selective inhibitor 4-(2-bromo-6-fluorobenzoyl)-N-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (IC 50 0.82 ╬╝M for ERK5; IC 50 > 120 ╬╝M for p38╬▒). The crystal structure (PDB 5O7I) of this compound in complex with ERK5 has been solved. This compound was orally bioavailable and inhibited bFGF-driven Matrigel plug angiogenesis and tumour xenograft growth. The selective ERK5 inhibitor described herein provides a lead for further development into a tool compound for more extensive studies seeking to examine the role of ERK5 signalling in cancer and other diseases
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