13 research outputs found

    Assessment of the Distribution and Abundance of Coastal Sharks in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Eastern Seaboard, 1995 and 1996

    Get PDF
    During 1995 and 1996, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), conducted pilot studies to develop survey methodology and a sampling strategy for assessment of coastal shark populations in the Gulf of Mexico and western North Atlantic. Longline gear similar to that used in the commercial shark fishery was deployed at randomly selected stations within three depth strata per 60 nautical mile gridf rom Brownsville, Tex. to Cape Ann, Mass. The survey methodology and gear design used in these surveys proved effective for capturing many of the small and large coastal sharks regulated under the auspices of the 1993 Fisheries Management Plan (FMP) for Sharks oft he Atlantic Ocean. Shark catch rates, species composition, and relative abundance documented in these pilot surveys were similar to those reported from observer programs monitoring commercial activities. During 78 survey days, 269 bottom longline sets were completed with 879 sharks captured

    Slaying the demon. The dementia challenge: Progress and achievements

    Get PDF
    There can be no doubt that the delivery of high quality care and support for patients and families living with dementia is a major challenge for health and social care services. As a nation we are living longer and we are seeing more people living with co-morbidities including dementia. Whilst our effort must remain on improving diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to treat and manage dementia, we must also be focused on supporting patients, families and carers who are living and coping with dementia on a daily basis. They need co-ordinated support and high quality services now, not the promise of improvements in the future. It was within this context that the NHS South Strategic Health Authority invested and commissioned work to advance innovation and identification of best practice across provider services in the South of England. We recognised that there was much to be proud of, but our challenge was to highlight best practice and innovation and share that with wider audiences and encourage adoption of excellence.This important report provides a valuable window on the work that is currently being developed across the South of England and in a wide range of services. The projects and programmes are extremely diverse, and are at different stages of development. We are continuing to learn about what works and what doesn’t. Many of the projects are multi-agency and all are actively engaged in partnership working across disciplines and - importantly - are working closely with patients and carers. The work is not easy, and unfortunately structural re-organisations and reform of the NHS and Social Care, and continuing funding challenges, have caused some delays in progressing the projects. However, the commissioners and authors of the report believe it is of vital importance to share the findings thus far, whilst recognising that many of the projects are still on-going and will continue to develop. Our aim is simple – we want to encourage dialogue and sharing in a field of research and practice that is engaging with one of the greatest health and social care challenges of our time. We believe that further investment and research is clearly needed but we also recognise that by adopting best practice now across all organisations we can also help those patients, families and carers who need high quality services and support today and tomorrow. We must continue to invest, research and advance our knowledge and understanding in the dementia field, but as we do we must apply our findings to our daily practice and not ignore the small interventions that can improve the lives of so many on a daily basis. This report is designed to support practitioners, commissioners, delivery agents, patients and carers by shining a light on the best practice and innovations we have found today. Please engage with it, share it, and adopt the best

    Distribution, Abundance, and Age Structure of Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) Caught on Research Longlines in U.S. Gulf of Mexico

    Get PDF
    Two pilot surveys were conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) to determine the feasibility of sampling red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) populations in offshore waters with bottom longline gear. The first pilot survey off Mississippi-Alabama was conducted in May 1999 and yielded a total of seven snapper from 60 stations. The second pilot survey was off Texas in June 2000 and yielded a total of 76 snapper from 44 stations. The catch per unit effort was 0.12 red snapper/100 hook hr [coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.54] in 1999 and 1.73 red snapper/100 hook hr (CV = 0.21) in 2000. Otoliths were removed from all collected red snapper, and ages were assigned with an average percent error of 3.71%. Red snapper from the 1999 survey ranged from 405 to 873 mm total length (TL) (545 mm TL median) and from 3 to 19 yr (median age 5 yr). The red snapper from Texas ranged in size from 380 to 903 mm TL (755 mm TL median) and ranged in age from 3 to 53 yr (median age 11 yr). Based on the results of the pilot surveys, expanded longline surveys targeting red snapper were conducted in 2001 and 2002; these surveys yielded 86 snapper and 75 snapper, respectively. The 2001 snapper ranged from 427 to 950 mm TL (770 mm TL median) and from 3 to 37 yr (median age 12 yr). The 2002 snapper ranged from 409 to 950 mm TL (815 mm TL median) and from 4 to 44 yr (median age 13 yr). Twelve red snapper were captured in the eastern Gulf (east of the Mississippi River), and their ages ranged from 3 to 19 yr (median age 6 yr). The 232 red snapper that were caught in the western Gulf ranged in age from 3 to 53 yr (median age 12 yr). A difference in catch rates by depth was also noted with most red snapper captures occurring in the 55-92 m depth range

    Distributions of Sharks across a Continental Shelf in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Get PDF
    Declines in shark populations have sparked researchers and fishery managers to investigate more prudent approaches to the conservation of these fish. As managers strive to improve data collection for stock assessment, fisheries-independent surveys have expanded to include data-deficient areas such as coastal regions. To that end, a catch series from a nearshore survey off Alabama was combined with data from a concurrent offshore survey with identical methodology to examine the depth use of sharks across the continental shelf (2–366 m). The combined data set contained 22 species of sharks collected from 1995 to 2008: 21 species in the offshore data set (1995–2008) and 12 species in the nearshore data set (2006–2008). Depth was a significant factor determining species’ distributions, primarily for Atlantic sharpnose Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, blacknose Carcharhinus acronotus, and blacktip C. limbatus sharks. Blacknose sharks had the highest catch per unit effort (CPUE) in the middepth stratum (10–30 m), blacktip sharks had consistently higher CPUE in the shallow depth stratum (,10 m), and Atlantic sharpnose sharks showed high abundance throughout both the shallow and mid-depth strata. Length frequency and sex ratio analyses suggest that Atlantic sharpnose and blacknose sharks are using waters greater than 30 m deep for parturition, whereas adult blacktip sharks are probably using shallow waters for parturition. Our abundance patterns illustrate a continuum of depth use across the inner continental shelf. Surveys that do not encompass the entirety of this ecosystem fail to accurately characterize the distributions of these important predators

    International Pig-a gene mutation assay trial: Evaluation of transferability across fourteen laboratories

    No full text
    Experiments described herein were designed to evaluate the reproducibility and transferability of an in vivo mutation assay based on the enumeration of CD59-negative rat erythrocytes, a phenotype that is indicative of Pig-a gene mutation. Fourteen laboratories participated in this study, where anti-CD59-PE and SYTO 13 dye were used to label leukocyte-depleted blood samples, and the frequency of CD59-negative erythrocytes (RBCCD59-) and CD59-negative reticulocytes (RETCD59-) were determined via flow cytometric analysis. To provide samples with a range of mutant phenotype cell frequencies, male rats were exposed to the prototypical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) via oral gavage for three consecutive days (Days 1-3). Each laboratory studied 0, 20 and 40 mg ENU/kg/day (n = 5 per group). Three sites also evaluated 4 mg/kg/day. At a minimum, blood samples were collected three times: pre-dosing and on Days 15 and 30. Blood samples were processed according to standardized sample processing and data acquisition protocols, and three endpoints were measured: %reticulocytes, frequency of RETCD59-, and frequency of RBCCD59-. As illustrated by the analysis of technical replicates, the methodology was found to be highly reproducible, as experimental coefficients of variation approached theoretical values. Good transferability was evident from the similar kinetics and magnitude of the responses that were observed among different laboratories. Dose-related increases in the frequency of RETCD59- and RBCCD59- were consistently observed on Day 15. Whereas maximal RETCD59- responses tended to occur by Day 15, peak RBCCD59- responses occurred at approximately Day 45. Elevated mutant phenotype cell frequencies were maintained through the latest time-point studied (Day 90). High concordance correlation coefficients show a remarkable level of agreement between the reference site and the test sites. Collectively, these data demonstrate that with adequate training of personnel, flow cytometric analysis is capable of reliably enumerating mutant phenotype erythrocytes, thereby providing a robust in vivo mutation assay that is readily transferable across laboratories