1,170 research outputs found

    Addiction, compulsion, and weakness of the will: A dual process perspective

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    How should addictive behavior be explained? In terms of neurobiological illness and compulsion, or as a choice made freely, even rationally, in the face of harmful social or psychological circumstances? Some of the disagreement between proponents of the prevailing medical models and choice models in the science of addiction centres on the notion of “loss of control” as a normative characterization of addiction. In this article I examine two of the standard interpretations of loss of control in addiction, one according to which addicts have lost free will, the other according to which their will is weak. I argue that both interpretations are mistaken and propose therefore an alternative based on a dual-process approach. This alternative neither rules out a capacity in addicts to rationally choose to engage in drug-oriented behavior, nor the possibility that addictive behavior can be compulsive and depend upon harmful changes in their brains caused by the regular use of drugs

    BVRI Photometry of the CX Cephei System (WR 151)

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    We have obtained 699 new BVRI observations of the O5 + WN5 eclipsing binary system CX Cephei (WR 151), plus 126 more observations in V only. Our light curves are consistent with previous studies, showing a primary minimum (where the O5 star is eclipsed) of approximately 0.1 mag depth and a much smaller secondary minimum with an approximately 0.03 mag depth. Using the PHOEBE interface to the Wilson-Devinney computer code, we were able to obtain a reasonably satisfactory fit to these data, ignoring any possible contribution from atmospheric eclipse phenomena. The best-fit solution has i = 61.1° and results in masses of 36.8 M_☉ for the O5 star and 26.4 M_☉ for the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. The binary system is detached. There is an asymmetry in the light curve, suggesting that the “leading side” of the O5 star (or the trailing side of the WR star) is brighter than vice versa. We also observed some features in the light curve that were persistent, but which we could not model.0 - C residuals relative to the PHOEBE fit reveal time variations with a total range of approximately 12% of the flux. Comparing our data with those of Lipunova & Cherpashchuk (1982), we find that the secondary minimum is less prominent today than it was in the 1980s. We were able to revise their period estimate to 2.12691 days